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partnerships:azp:azp [2017/06/12 10:20] (current)
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 +An A to Z of partnerships
 +=========================
 +
 +The A-Z contains brief items on the topics listed below. It is designed
 +to read in conjunction with other material on this site which deals with
 +collaboration between different interests involved in urban and rural
 +regeneration programme (renewal or revitalisation are terms also used).
 +
 +-   An [Introduction to Partnerships](part) which is just that
 +-   ​[Information sheets on creating development trusts](sheets) .A
 +    set of guidance notes on the process of setting up community
 +    development trusts and similar partnership organisations
 +-   [The A-Z of Effective Participation](../​guide/​AZpartic) . A
 +    more extensive A-Z about the wider issues of community participation
 +
 +The A-Z of Partnerships below was developed in 1994. There'​s a [later
 +version here](A-Zp) (2000) with more emphasis on networks. It is a
 +large file (200k) so will take time to load. If you want to use any of
 +the material, please contact me. David Wilcox
 +\<<​david@partnerships.org.uk>​\>​
 +
 +[Accountability](AZP)
 +
 +[Action plans](AZP)
 +
 +[Agendas](AZP)
 +
 +[Aims and objectives](AZP)
 +
 +[Attitudes](AZP)
 +
 +[Barriers to partnership](AZP)
 +
 +[Bids](AZP#​Bids)
 +
 +[Brainstorming](AZP#​Brain)
 +
 +[Business planning](AZP#​Business)
 +
 +[Charitable status](AZP#​Charitable)
 +
 +[Charts](AZP#​Charts)
 +
 +[Committees](AZP#​Committees)
 +
 +[Commitment](AZP#​Commitment)
 +
 +[Communication](AZP#​Communication)
 +
 +[Community](AZP#​Community)
 +
 +[Community forum](AZP#​Forum)
 +
 +[Community Involvement](AZP#​Involve)
 +
 +[Companies](AZP#​Companies)
 +
 +[Constitution](AZP)
 +
 +[Consultants](AZP)
 +
 +[Consultation](AZP)
 +
 +[Control](AZP)
 +
 +[Development trusts](AZP)
 +
 +[Factors for success](AZP)
 +
 +[Five Ws plus H](AZP)
 +
 +[Fundraising](AZP)
 +
 +[Identity and image](AZP)
 +
 +[Launch](AZP)
 +
 +[Management committee](AZP)
 +
 +[Media](AZP)
 +
 +[Meetings](AZP)
 +
 +[Mission](AZP)
 +
 +[Networking](AZP)
 +
 +[Not invented here](AZP)
 +
 +[Organisational culture](AZP)
 +
 +[Outcomes](AZP)
 +
 +[Outputs](AZP)
 +
 +[Ownership](AZP)
 +
 +[Participation](AZP)
 +
 +[Partnership](AZP)
 +
 +[Partnership building](AZP)
 +
 +[Planning for Real](AZP)
 +
 +[Post-it notes](AZP)
 +
 +[Public meetings](AZP)
 +
 +[Purpose](AZP)
 +
 +[Small Groups](AZP)
 +
 +[Socials](AZP)
 +
 +[Stakeholders](AZP)
 +
 +[Steering committee](AZP#​Steer)
 +
 +[Structures](AZP)
 +
 +[SWOT](AZP)
 +
 +[Take stock](AZP)
 +
 +[Team building](AZP)
 +
 +[Terms of reference](AZP)
 +
 +[Time Line](AZP)
 +
 +[Trust](AZP)
 +
 +[Values](AZP)
 +
 +[Vision](AZP)
 +
 +[Workshops](AZP)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Accountability
 +--------------
 +
 +Accountability means knowing who is answerable to whom. This may be
 +difficult in a partnership where staff have different employers, the
 +steering group or management committee is not formally constituted,​ and
 +there are a number of less formal working groups. To clarify
 +accountability consider:
 +
 +-   Who can stop someone doing something?
 +-   Whose permission is needed for someone to act?
 +-   Who pays them?
 +
 +If these questions give different answers, expect problems. See also
 +Action plans, Terms of reference.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Action plans
 +
 +Action plans answer questions of: what do we do next? who does it? with
 +what resources? Action plans may be complex plans covering a year or
 +more, or the outcome of a decision-making meeting covering the next few
 +weeks. Action minutes after meetings should ensure something happens,
 +and clarify accountability.
 +
 +### Action minutes
 +
 +Action
 +
 +Deadline
 +
 +Responsibility
 +
 +Accountability
 +
 +Resources
 +
 +1st task
 +
 +By when?
 +
 +By whom?
 +
 +To whom?
 +
 +Money, skills?
 +
 +2nd task
 +
 +By when?
 +
 +By whom?
 +
 +To whom?
 +
 +Money, skills?
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Agendas
 +
 +Agendas ensure there is an agreed plan for a meeting. Hidden agendas
 +ensure it is impossible to plan anything. If different interests in a
 +partnership are seeking different outcomes, and not declaring them, the
 +result is likely to be frustration and growing mistrust. Challenge by
 +ask: 'What are we trying to achieve?'​ See also Outcomes, Team building,
 +Vision.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Aims and objectives
 +
 +Aims are a written description of what a group or organisation is trying
 +to achieve, and the objectives are the methods by which they may do
 +that. The different interests in a partnership will all have their own
 +aims and objectives - so focus on where these overlap. See also Mission,
 +Outcomes, Purpose, Vision.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Attitudes
 +
 +Some of the main barriers to participation and partnership lie in the
 +attitudes people bring to the process. Residents may lack confidence or
 +feel action is not their responsibility. Officials may see getting the
 +job done quickly as a top priority, even if it doesn'​t meet the needs of
 +all concerned. Councillors may feel their power is eroded by sharing
 +decision making with local people. See also Commitment, Ownership,
 +Stakeholders.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Barriers to partnership
 +
 +People attending workshops leading up to the New Cities '94 conference
 +gave these examples of why partnerships may not work:
 +
 +-   One partner manipulates or dominates.
 +-   ​Differences of philosophy and ways of working.
 +-   Lack of communication.
 +-   ​Unequal and unacceptable balance of power and control.
 +-   ​Hidden agendas.
 +-   ​Agendas which are not compatible.
 +-   Some partners brought in late.
 +
 +See also Agendas, Control, Communication,​ Partnership building.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Bids
 +
 +Increasingly partnership organisations must make formal bids for
 +resources, governed by strict guidelines. These bids may trigger the
 +partnership-building process, influence the nature and style of the
 +partnerships,​ as well as dictate funding. In preparing bids:
 +
 +-   Treat the bid as the start of business planning, if you are forming
 +    a new organisation.
 +-   Aim for a mix of funding - not just one source.
 +-   Think through aims and objectives independently of the bid. Meet
 +    your own purpose as well as your funder'​s.
 +-   Place the bid in a partnership-building process.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Brainstorming
 +
 +Brainstorming is defined as 'a means of getting a large number of ideas
 +from a group of people in a short time'. It is one of the most widely
 +used workshop techniques, and useful when partnerships are trying to
 +shape their agenda and tackle problems creatively.
 +
 +### Brainstorming
 +
 +After you have defined the problem or question:
 +
 +-   Throw up every idea you can. Don't discuss or reject any.
 +-   ​Record ideas on a chart - one idea may spark off another.
 +-   When ideas dry up, cross off those agreed as ludicrous.
 +-   Look for common themes and possible solutions.
 +-   Draw up an action plan.
 +
 +See also Charts, Workshops.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Business planning
 +
 +Any partnership organisation which aims to keep going in the long term
 +needs a business or development plan. For a non-profit organisation the
 +plan will balance the costs and income of three parts of its operation:
 +
 +-   The projects, products or services provided by the organisation.
 +-   The core staff, premises and equipment.
 +-   Any fundraising.
 +
 +The business plan should cover at least three years and show how
 +fundraising and any income earned from projects covers the core costs.
 +See also Companies, Constitution,​ Fundraising.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Charitable status
 +
 +A charity is not a particular form of organisation,​ different from a
 +company or community group. Both may be charities, if they are accepted
 +and registered as such by the Charity Commissioners. (In Scotland and
 +Northern Ireland registration is directly with the Inland Revenue). To
 +be registered as a charity an organisation must restrict its activities
 +to one or more of the following objects:
 +
 +-   The relief of poverty.
 +-   The advancement of religion.
 +-   The advancement of education.
 +-   Other purposes beneficial to the community.
 +
 +Charitable status adds credibility to an organisation,​ provides some tax
 +benefits, and enables it to apply to large charities for funding. In
 +general charities can only make gifts to other charities. There are,
 +however, restrictions on trading and members of any management committee
 +have substantial additional responsibilities as trustees.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Charts
 +
 +These may be flip charts - pads of large paper used with an easel - or
 +simply lining paper tacked to the wall. They are an essential tool of
 +partnership-building,​ because they help you break out of committee mode.
 +Committees need agendas and minutes - workshops need charts. In using
 +charts:
 +
 +-   Stick charts up as you write them, so people can see early work.
 +-   Offer the pen to others in the group.
 +-   Keep charts or photograph them as a record.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Committees
 +
 +Committees of partnership organisations can pose particular problems
 +because almost inevitably people come from different background, and
 +probably haven'​t worked together before. In order to overcome this, run
 +workshops and organise socials.
 +
 +### Meetings checklist
 +
 +-   To improve your committee meetings, get members to agree to:
 +-   Read papers beforehand and bring them to the meeting.
 +-   Check what they don't understand and research background.
 +-   Turn up at the right time and stick to the agenda.
 +-   Think before speaking and listen to other people .
 +-   Seek decisions on which all can agree.
 +-   ​Record what needs to be done.
 +-   Read the action minutes and take any action necessary.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Commitment
 +
 +The centre line of partnership-building is gaining commitment. It
 +depends on developing a shared vision, and some ownership of the ideas
 +which are to be put into practice.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Communication
 +
 +Effective communication involves considering how your message will be
 +received as well as how you send it: the meaning of any communication
 +lies in the response you get. Obvious barriers are:
 +
 +-   Lack of clarity about what you want to get across.
 +-   ​Jargon.
 +-   ​Hostility to you or your organisation.
 +-   Lack of credibility in the message or the person giving it.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Community
 +
 +Community is a term so widely applied that it is in danger of losing any
 +meaning, like '​members of the public'​. Aren't we all? It is more useful
 +to think of a large number of over-lapping communities distinguished by
 +the characteristics of their members, and the common interests which tie
 +members together and give these characteristics a shared significance.
 +Because individuals may belong to many different communities at the same
 +time, different allegiances may people pull in different directions.
 +There are likely to be competing and conflicting interests within
 +communities. See also Stakeholders.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Community forum
 +
 +A community forum is regular meeting of community activists and interest
 +groups which may also involve local business, political, religious and
 +social organisations. It may be useful for discussion of issues of
 +concern to local interests, and for stimulating contacts and networking.
 +A forum is not so good for turning discussion into action, where some
 +complementary 'do it' organisation like a Development Trust may be
 +needed.
 +
 +### Setting up a community forum
 +
 +-   Avoid domination by any one interest group.
 +-   ​Consider splitting meetings into small groups so people have more
 +    chance to contribute.
 +-   Seek an independent widely-respected chair.
 +-   Make any servicing of the forum - developing agendas, recording
 +    discussion - as independent as possible.
 +-   ​Don'​t make the forum the only channel for communication.
 +
 +See also Networking, Small groups, Structures.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Community Involvement
 +
 +Partnership bodies can be just as inward looking and autocratic as
 +larger bureaucracies. In planning community involvement:​
 +
 +-   Think beyond 'the community'​ to different interests.
 +-   ​Consider the level of participation which may be appropriate.
 +-   Meet people informally.
 +-   Use a range of participation methods - print, events, workshops - if
 +    you are aiming for more than basic information giving.
 +
 +These issues are dealt with in The Guide to Effective Participation.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Companies
 +
 +A particular form of company, the company limited by guarantee, is
 +increasingly popular as an organisational structure for partnerships.
 +Companies limited by guarantee do not have shareholders - instead their
 +members agree to pay a nominal sum, often onlyy £1, if the company
 +fails. The rights of these members to appoint members of the governing
 +body - the Board - are defined by the constitution - the Memorandum and
 +Articles of Association. The company does not distribute surpluses as
 +profits, but reinvests them in the company. If the members of the Board
 +are unpaid, and the company has appropriate objects, it can seek
 +charitable status.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Constitution
 +
 +A constitution sets out governing rules for an organisation. For a
 +company it is the Memorandum and Articles of Association. Constitutions
 +are important at the beginning, when a body is being set up, and when
 +there is an argument about control. Generally:
 +
 +-   ​Clarify aims and objectives, vision, and an action plan before
 +    drafting the constitution.
 +-   Avoid using the constitution to resolve disputes.
 +-   ​Consult a solicitor with experience of non-profit organisations if
 +    you are forming a company.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Consultants
 +
 +In my view consultants may be helpful for partnerships if:
 +
 +-   They act as '​process consultants'​ to help groups through the
 +    partnership-building process, or
 +-   They have clear briefs for specific project studies.
 +-   They provide support and training around key issues.
 +
 +It is a mistake to ask consultants to design partnership structures or
 +programmes unless they work closely with all the key interests.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Consultation
 +
 +Consultation is the level of participation at which people are offered
 +some choices on what is to happen, but are not involved in developing
 +additional options. As such it is not a level of partnership.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Control
 +
 +Control in partnerships tends to lie with those who have the money,
 +skills and administration - however well intentioned they may be in
 +seeking to involve others. For that reason partnerships formed around
 +existing organisations may seem very unequal to other participants. Ways
 +around this include:
 +
 +-   ​Checking whether '​partnership'​ is the right label for what is being
 +    attempted. Would consultation be more appropriate?​
 +-   Being explicit about accountability and terms of reference.
 +-   ​Setting up formal partnerships when the aim is to share control.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Development trusts
 +
 +Development Trusts are '​independent,​ not-for-profit organisations which
 +take action to renew an area physically, socially and in spirit. They
 +bring together the public, private and voluntary sectors, and obtain
 +financial and other resources from a wide range of organisations and
 +individuals. They encourage substantial involvement by local people and
 +aim to sustain their operations at least in part by generating revenue.'​
 +(Creating Development Trusts, HMSO 1988). Also known as community
 +development trusts, they should not be confused with community trusts,
 +which are fundraising and grant-making bodies.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Factors for success
 +
 +At seminars leading to the New Cities '94 conference, participants
 +identified these factors which could help partnerships work:
 +
 +-   ​Shared mandates or agendas.
 +-   ​Respect and trust between different interests.
 +-   An agreed need that a partnership was necessary.
 +-   ​Compatible ways of working, and flexibility.
 +-   Being effective at managing and delivering.
 +-   Time to build the partnership.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Five Ws plus H
 +
 +A simple checklist to help you think of issues:
 +
 +-   What are you trying to do, decide, explain?
 +-   When must you start and finish?
 +-   Why is it necessary?
 +-   Who needs to be consulted, involved?
 +-   Where is it happening?
 +-   H stands for How, which follows the Ws.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Fundraising
 +
 +In planning any fundraising consider:
 +
 +-   What do you need the money for, and how much? Do a budget.
 +-   When will you need it? Produce a Time Line.
 +-   What will you do if you can't raise the total you need?
 +-   Who is likely to fund you, and why should they support you?
 +-   Will you need more money later when initial funds are used up?
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Identity and image
 +
 +Corporate identity is the way everything about an organisation looks and
 +sounds, from the letterhead to the way staff answer the telephone. It is
 +an important issue for a partnership because:
 +
 +-   A coherent identity helps communicate effectively.
 +-   ​Working with a designer and writer is an excellent way of clarifying
 +    what you are trying to say and to whom.
 +-   Once you have a strong identify you have to live up to it.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Launch
 +
 +A launch can be useful both externally internally:
 +
 +-   It provides a formal start line if used at the beginning, when you
 +    can outline the overall process and your stance to others.
 +-   It is a good time to attract media coverage.
 +-   It is an opportunity for social contacts.
 +-   It is a deadline for making decisions and preparing materials.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Management committee
 +
 +The management committee is the governing body for a project or
 +organisation,​ to which staff are accountable. In a company it is the
 +Board of directors. It is important to strike a balance in composition:​
 +little will be achieved if everyone on the committee has to learn how to
 +manage an organisation. However, a committee which has no representation
 +of key interests may well find itself in difficulty.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Media
 +
 +The media is mainly in the business of interesting and entertaining its
 +users, and of selling itself or advertising. It is not there as a public
 +service to promote your ideas or project. Journalists judge what is news
 +against 'news values'​ which generally include:
 +
 +-   ​Conflict (where'​s the row).
 +-   ​Hardship (how many hurt, who is in danger).
 +-   ​Oddity (that'​s unusual).
 +-   ​Scandal (sex, corruption).
 +-   ​Individuality (what an interesting person).
 +-   ​Disclosure (we can reveal).
 +
 +Local journalists have a more relaxed view than Lord Northcliffe,​ but
 +you do need to consider what's in the story for them. In producing a
 +press release, make sure you have answered the Five Ws plus H.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Meetings
 +
 +Meetings are at the heart of partnership building processes, whether
 +social get-togethers,​ committees, workshops, or public meetings.
 +
 +### Meetings checklist
 +
 +For effective meetings, consider:
 +
 +-   Style of the meeting. If it is to be a creative workshop rather than
 +    a committee, make sure people know that in advance.
 +-   An accessible venue (public transport, disabled access).
 +-   Child care (crèche, financial assistance).
 +-   What information and notice is appropriate beforehand. Provide
 +    papers with options for formal meetings, but only an outline for a
 +    workshop so that people are spontaneous.
 +-   Any aids you will need: charts, projectors etc.
 +-   The layout of the room, and scope for breaking into small groups.
 +    Avoid a platform and lecture-style seating .
 +-   Good management of the meeting itself, and follow-up: see Action
 +    plans, Committees, Public meetings, Workshops.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Mission
 +
 +Mission is what you wish to achieve. The term is much favoured in
 +business management, but can confuse people with its military or
 +evangelical overtones. Purpose is an alternative. See also Aims and
 +objectives, Outcomes, Purpose.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Networking
 +
 +Networking is the important business of making informal contacts,
 +chatting, and picking up further contacts. It is the way to learn:
 +
 +-   What issues people consider important.
 +-   The sort of ideas and language they find familiar.
 +-   Who are the key people and organisations - the stakeholders.
 +
 +Networking is important before other more formal information-giving like
 +producing leaflets, staging exhibitions and holding meetings. National
 +networking organisations may also be able to provide you with local
 +contacts, and similar projects elsewhere.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Not invented here
 +
 +The opposite of ownership, and one of the most significant barriers to
 +participation and partnership. People are far more likely to participate
 +effectively in partnerships if they play a part in developing ideas and
 +action plans.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Organisational culture
 +
 +The way local authorities traditionally work can present major barriers
 +to partnership and community involvement. For example:
 +
 +-   ​Officers who believe that they know best.
 +-   ​Councillors who believe they are the sole voice of the community.
 +-   ​Departments that act independently.
 +-   ​Insisting all decision-making processes follow the local authority
 +    political and statutory framework.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Outcomes
 +
 +Outcomes is used here to describe those general results of plans and
 +actions which you are seeking to achieve. Thinking in terms of outcomes
 +which you may see, hear, feel as well as the more abstract aims and
 +objectives should help clarify what to do to achieve what you want. For
 +partnerships to work well, the outcomes sought by different parties must
 +dovetail to some extent.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Outputs
 +
 +Outputs are the measurable results of projects or programmes - homes
 +built, people who have completed training - and are dear to funders who
 +want to know what they are getting for their money.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Ownership
 +
 +The stake that people have in an idea, a project or an organisation is
 +fundamental to their commitment. For that reason, early brainstorming
 +workshops, where everyone has a chance to contribute ideas, are
 +important. See also Control.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Participation
 +
 +Participation is used here to describe a process by which individuals,​
 +groups and organisations are consulted about or have the opportunity to
 +become actively involved in a project or programme of activity.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Partnership
 +
 +Partnerships are formal or informal arrangements to work together to
 +some joint purpose. In my view:
 +
 +-   ​Informal partnerships work best when the project is specific and
 +    clearly achievable.
 +-   Where the task is complex and long term it may be necessary to
 +    create a more formal structure for decision-making .
 +-   It is difficult to tackle a wide range of issues through an informal
 +    partnership. It is better to treat this as consultation.
 +-   ​Simply setting up a partnership structure doesn'​t solve the
 +    problems. You still need to clarify joint purpose, values etc.
 +
 +Partnerships do not have to be equal - but the various parties do need
 +to feel that they are involved to an appropriate degree.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Partnership building
 +
 +Partnerships,​ like relationships,​ take time to develop. Are partners
 +after the same thing (outcome)? Do they have the same idea of what is
 +important (values)? Do they trust each other? It may be helpful to think
 +of developing a partnership as a four-stage process:
 +
 +-   ​Initiation:​ something triggers the idea of a partnership.
 +-   ​Preparation:​ the initiator plans how to involve others.
 +-   ​Action:​ the partnership is formed.
 +-   ​Continuation - or separation.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Planning for Real®
 +
 +Planning for Real is a powerful technique for involving individuals and
 +groups in decisions about their neighbourhood,​ a site or building by
 +producing a three-dimensional model. This and similar model-based
 +techniques can be very effective in involving people because they allow
 +'hands on' responses, do not rely on written material, and give everyone
 +a say. It is important that:
 +
 +-   ​People are aware of the 'real world' constraints on making physical
 +    and other changes.
 +-   It is clear where responsibility for decisions lies, and who will
 +    takes ideas forward.
 +-   If community interests are to be involved in implementation,​ there
 +    is support and training for organisational development.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Post-it notes
 +
 +A great technical aid to collective decision-making,​ and an improvement
 +on basic Brainstorming. When running workshops give people pads of
 +Post-its to write their ideas on, then stick them on a chart and move
 +them around into groups.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Public meetings
 +
 +Although widely used, public meetings are not the most effective method
 +of involving people. While they may be useful giving information,​ and
 +gaining support around a clear-cut issue, they are poor vehicles for
 +debate and decision-making. Classic public meetings with a platform
 +party can easily be dominated by a small number of people, and become
 +stage sets for confrontation.
 +
 +### Checklist
 +
 +-   If you do hold a public meeting:
 +-   ​Ensure good preparation and publicity.
 +-   ​Research and focus on local concerns.
 +-   Keep any presentations short with opportunities for response.
 +-   ​Consider breaking into small groups for some of the time.
 +-   ​Choose someone independent and locally respected as chair.
 +-   ​Ensure the venue is easily accessible.
 +-   Build on the results and report back on progress.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Purpose
 +
 +A statement of purpose, or mission statement, is a summary in a sentence
 +or two of your intention - your aims and objectives. Statements of
 +purpose may start out as broad intentions like 'we aim to create a
 +better place to live and work'. They become meaningful when the aim is
 +followed with statements of how: for example 'by providing advise and
 +support for practical environmental projects'​. There may be a number of
 +these 'how to' statements which are objectives. If they are measurable,
 +they become targets. See also Aims and objectives, Mission, Outcomes,
 +Vision.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Small Groups
 +
 +Large meetings and committees are often unsatisfactory for working
 +through difficult issues. Take some time to break into groups and report
 +back.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Socials
 +
 +Among the committee meetings and workshop sessions allow time for social
 +events where people can get to know each informally.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Stakeholders
 +
 +Stakeholders are those with an interest, because they will be affected
 +or may have some influence.
 +
 +### Stakeholder analysis
 +
 +In order to think through the role of stakeholders:​
 +
 +-   ​Consider who the key stakeholders are.
 +-   Put yourself in their shoes: how are they likely to react ?
 +-   Draw this up on a flip chart.
 +
 +**Who?**
 +
 +**What is their likely attitude?**
 +
 +**What response or change do you want?**
 +
 +**What has to be done?**
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Steering committee
 +
 +Steering committees are groups, often with wide representation,​
 +responsible for the direction of a project. In order to ensure all
 +parties play a part:
 +
 +-   ​Clarify accountability and terms of reference.
 +-   Run some sessions as workshops, rather than formal committee
 +    meetings, and develop agreed action plans.
 +
 +See also Structures.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Structures
 +
 +Successful partnerships are not created solely by choosing the right
 +structure, any more than marriages are made by marriage vows. They
 +should be founded on a clear purpose, trust, agreement on
 +responsibilities - and that take time. Consider:
 +
 +-   ​Whoever holds the cheque book controls the programme. Should this
 +    power to lie with an existing organisation?​
 +-   Staff will follow the directions of whoever pays their wages.
 +-   ​Information is power, and whoever produces papers, agendas and
 +    writes the minutes controls the meetings.
 +-   On the other hand, incorporated structures like companies generate
 +    extra costs and responsibilities for those on the Board.
 +
 +I suggest that for big programmes where a number of interests want a
 +real stake over a long period, go for a company. For short-term projects
 +work through existing structures, and fora. See also Accountability,​
 +Constitution,​ Partnership building, Terms of reference.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## SWOT
 +
 +SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It's a
 +good technique to start planning a partnership.
 +
 +### Using SWOT
 +
 +When you are clear what your aim is:
 +
 +-   ​Brainstorm issues under each heading. Strengths and weaknesses
 +    relate to internal matters for the group or organisation,​
 +    opportunities and threats to the external. Divide up a chart, and
 +    ask people to fill in and stick on Post-it notes.
 +-   Draw up a summary and discuss how to build on your strengths, do
 +    something about your weaknesses. make the most of the opportunities,​
 +    avoid or eliminate the threats.
 +-   Turn these conclusions into an Action plan.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Take stock
 +
 +At the start of a partnership building process take stock by carrying
 +out a SWOT analysis, identifying stakeholders and clarifying your aims
 +and objectives.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Team building
 +
 +Team building is the process of helping a group develop shared aims and
 +objectives, values and a plan to put them into action. People working
 +together are better able to get to know each other than, for example,
 +members of a management committee meeting every month or two - so team
 +building workshops can be particularly important for partnerships. I
 +suggest, if possible, bringing in a trainer who specialises in team
 +building to plan a programme. If not, an 'away day' with a facilitator
 +to work on simple techniques like Brainstorming and SWOT can achieve a
 +lot.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Terms of reference
 +
 +Any committee, forum or group needs clear terms of reference covering:
 +
 +-   The purpose and membership of the group.
 +-   Who services it with agendas and minutes.
 +-   How often it meets - and for how long.
 +-   The topics or issues the group covers.
 +-   The powers of the group to make decisions.
 +-   What funding it has, if any.
 +-   To which committee or group it reports back.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Time Line
 +
 +Everything takes longer than you thinkk - even when you know it does.
 +Drawing a timeline is a simple technique to set priorities among
 +activities and events which must be completed in creating a partnership
 +or carrying out programme.
 +
 +-   Draw a horizontal line on a piece of paper.
 +-   ​Graduate it into appropriate blocks of time (days, weeks, months).
 +    The first mark is NOW, the last the completion date.
 +-   Think of all the tasks to be completed.
 +-   Place the tasks on the time line in the order of when they have to
 +    be done, and which are the most important to do at a particular
 +    time.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Trust
 +
 +Trust is an essential foundation for all aspects of participation and
 +partnership. It comes from working together and through that discovering
 +shared values and ways of doing things. In order to develop trust:
 +
 +-   Draw out and deal with any suspicions from past contacts.
 +-   Be open and honest about what you are trying to achieve - and about
 +    any problems.
 +-   Be prepared to make mistakes - and admit them.
 +-   Meet people informally.
 +-   ​Deliver what you promise.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Values
 +
 +Values are statements of what we consider important. Since they may be
 +emotive, political, and difficult to express, they are frequently
 +hidden. However it is difficult to understand each other or reach
 +agreement if we are unclear about values. For example, council officers
 +faced with a tight project timetable may be frustrated by a community
 +group which insists on numerous meetings, held in the evenings, leading
 +to the appointment of a representative steering group. The officers
 +value cost-effective delivery of '​product'​ acceptable to their political
 +masters and the Government; the group values openness and democratic
 +process. In groups where there may be underlying differences of values
 +it is often most productive to concentrate first on what there is in
 +common by discussing outcomes - what you would like to happen at the end
 +of the day - and how you can get there.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Vision
 +
 +The idea of a vision of the future seems to me rather broader than
 +purpose or mission, because it places more emphasis on values and
 +approach - how you do things as well as the result you achieve. Vision
 +may be a helpful term if you are using participation techniques that
 +encourage people to create pictures of what they want, or develop
 +models. Partnerships need vision - and visions.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +## Workshops
 +
 +Workshops are meetings at which a small group, perhaps aided by a
 +facilitator,​ explore issues, develop ideas and make decisions. They are
 +the less formal and creative counterpart to public meetings and
 +committees. See also Brainstorming,​ Charts, Post-it notes, Small groups.
 +
 +[Back to Partnerships and participation](../​part/​index)
 +
  
partnerships/azp/azp.txt · Last modified: 2017/06/12 10:20 (external edit)