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partnerships:guide:frame [2017/06/12 10:20] (current)
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 +# Framework for participation
 +
 +This section summarises a theoretical framework for thinking about
 +participation which brings together ideas from the [10 Key
 +Ideas](ideas) section. The summary below covers the main ideas:
 +
 +-   There are different levels of participation appropriate for
 +    different situations, and it is important to decide where you stand.
 +-   There isn't one \`community'​ but many interests - or stakeholders -
 +    to consider.
 +-   ​Participation takes time.
 +
 +These ideas are then developed in more detail in following sections:
 +
 +-   ​[Where do you stand?\
 +    ](stance)
 +-   [It takes time\
 +    ](time) The phases of participation\
 +-   ​[Signposts from theory to practice\
 +    ](theory) A theoretical discussion about how to decide what
 +    methods to use.
 +
 +Summary of the framework
 +------------------------
 +
 +The framework is developed from the idea of a ladder of participation
 +discussed in the [10 Key Issues](ideas) section. The framework adds
 +two other dimensions to the idea of the level of participation on a
 +ladder:
 +
 +-   The phase or stage of participation.
 +-   ​Different interests - or stakeholders - may be at different levels
 +    or stages of participation.
 +
 +\
 + ​![](image12.gif)
 +
 +1 The level of participation - where do you stand?
 +--------------------------------------------------
 +
 +See the set of questions at the end of this section about who \`you' are
 +and what you are trying to achieve.\
 +\
 + The ladder of participation model described in the [previous
 +section](ideas) suggests some levels are better than others. In this
 +framework I suggest it is more of a case of horses for courses -
 +different levels are appropriate in different circumstances.\
 +\
 + The key issue is what \`stance'​ are you taking as someone managing a
 +participation process, or controlling resources, and your reasons for
 +doing so.\
 +\
 + I suggest thinking of five levels - or stances - which offer increasing
 +degrees of control to the others involved.
 +
 +Information
 +
 +The least you can do is tell people what is planned.\
 +
 +Consultation
 +
 +You offer a number of options and listen to the feedback you get.\
 +
 +Deciding together
 +
 +You encourage others to provide some additional ideas and options, and
 +join in deciding the best way forward.\
 +
 +Acting together
 +
 +Not only do different interests decide together what is best, but they
 +form a partnership to carry it out.\
 +
 +Supporting independent community initiatives
 +
 +You help others do what they want - perhaps within a framework of
 +grants, advice and support provided by the resource holder.
 +
 +The '​lower'​ level of participation keep control with the initiator - but
 +they lead to less commitment from others.\
 +\
 + ​Compare this diagram with Sherry Arnstein'​s ladder in [10 Key
 +ideas](ideas)\
 +\
 + ​![](Level.gif)\
 +\
 + Each of these levels is discussed in more detail in the next main
 +section: [Where do you stand?​](stance)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +2 The phase - where have you got to?
 +------------------------------------
 +
 +Participation is a process in which people have to think through what
 +they want, consider some options, and work through what should happen. I
 +suggest there are four main phases:\
 +\
 + ​![](image14.gif)
 +
 +Initiation.
 +
 +The phase at which something triggers the need to involve people, and
 +you start to think what that involves.
 +
 +Preparation.
 +
 +The period when you think through the process, make the first contacts,
 +and agree an approach.
 +
 +Participation
 +
 +The phase in which you use participation methods with the main interests
 +in the community.
 +
 +Continuation
 +
 +What happens in this phase will depend very much on the level of
 +participation - you may be reporting back on consultation,​ or at another
 +level setting up partnership organisations.
 +
 +These different phases are discussed in more detail in the section It
 +takes time
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +3 People - who is involved?
 +---------------------------
 +
 +\
 + ​![](image15.gif)\
 +\
 + Some people will want - or demand - more involvement than others.
 +Others will wish not to be involved. Identifying these different
 +interests - stakeholders - and negotiating the level of participation
 +appropriate is the third dimension of the framework
 +
 +Some of the main issues in participation are about where power and
 +control lies between these interests, and the role of \`you' in this.
 +
 +Before starting a participation process it is important to reflect on
 +the role you have - the hat you are wearing. The way you act may be
 +influenced by how far you control resources, to whom you are answerable.
 +People'​s attitudes to you will certainly be influenced by the role and
 +power they think you have.
 +
 +It is also essential to clarify the purpose of participation - because
 +that will determine which stakeholders benefit.
 +
 +These issues are discussed in the items on *Beneficiaries*,​ *Power* and
 +*Empowerment* [in the A-Z](AZparticl)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +The nature of effective participation
 +-------------------------------------
 +
 +I think participation may work best for all concerned when each of the
 +key interests - the stakeholders - is satisfied with the level of
 +participation at which they are involved.\
 +\
 + That is, those who don't have much at stake may be happy to be informed
 +or consulted. Others will want to be involved in decisions and possibly
 +action to carry them out.\
 +\
 + The difficult task for the practitioner managing the process is to
 +identify these interests, help them work out what they want from the
 +process, and negotiate a route for them to achieve it.\
 +\
 + The power of the practitioner lies in influencing who will benefit.
 +Participation is not a neutal process. As yourself:
 +
 +-   What is the purpose of the process?
 +-   Who benefits? Who pays? Who controls?
 +
 +\
 + ​![](image16.gif)\
 +\
 + With different interests seeking different levels of participation,​ and
 +being in different phases, effective participation can seem like
 +shooting an arrow through a number of keyholes.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Some early questions
 +--------------------
 +
 +At the start of a participation process a number of key questions should
 +help you decide your approach:\
 +\
 + **Who are you? For example:**
 +
 +-   ​Someone in a position of power controlling funds or other resources.
 +-   ​Someone with influence because you are planning or managing a
 +    participation process.
 +-   ​Someone with professional expertise or knowledge?
 +
 +**What do you want to achieve by working a participatory style**?
 +
 +-   To try and develop plans that meet people'​s expectations.
 +-   To give people a say in the plans.
 +-   To give people control over the solutions.
 +
 +Who will have the final say over decisions?
 +
 +-   ​Yourself.
 +-   A management team.
 +-   ​Everyone who gets involved.
 +-   A political institution or other body
 +
 +How ready are people, and organisations,​ to work in a participatory way?
 +
 +-   Do they have the desire?
 +-   Do they have the skills?
 +-   Do they have the authority?
 +
 +### [On to Where do you stand?​](stance)
  
partnerships/guide/frame.txt ยท Last modified: 2017/06/12 10:20 (external edit)