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partnerships:guide:howto [2017/06/12 10:20] (current)
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 +# Guidelines and How to....
 +
 +It is tempting to say that every situation is so different that general
 +guidelines on participation are misleading - but that isn't much comfort
 +to anyone trying to work out how to start.
 +
 +So here are [ten guidelines](howto#​guide) intended to get you
 +thinking, rather than provide firm rules. Cross references are provided
 +to other *main sections* and *items* in the A-Z, and further guidelines
 +on the main tasks are given later. This section - as others - is written
 +for someone managing a participation process. Below the guidelines are
 +some suggestions covering how to:
 +
 +-   ​[...clarify why you want to involve others](howto#​clarify)
 +-   ​[...understand your role](howto#​under)
 +-   ​[...decide where you stand](howto#​decide)
 +-   ​[...prepare for participation](howto#​prepare)
 +-   ​[...choose participation methods](howto#​choose)
 +-   ​[...develop support within your organisation](howto#​develop)
 +-   [... and develop your skills as an enabler](howto#​skills)
 +-   ​[...choose an appropriate structure](howto#​struct)
 +-   ​[...plus a summary](howto#​sum)
 +
 +Guidelines
 +----------------------------------
 +
 +**1** Ask yourself what you wish to achieve from the participation
 +process, and what you want to help others achieve. What is the purpose?\
 + *See* [A framework for participation,​](frame) *Beneficiaries,​
 +Purpose in the* [*A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl)\
 + **2** Identify the different interests within a community that you wish
 +to involve, and put yourself in their shoes.\
 +\
 + *See Community, Stakeholders in the*[*A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl)\
 + **3** Clarify your own role and whether you are wearing too many hats -
 +for example, communicator of information,​ facilitator of ideas,
 +controller of resources.\
 +\
 + *See Accountability,​ Role of the Practitioner in the* [*A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl)\
 + **4** Consider what balance to strike between keeping control and
 +gaining other people'​s commitment, and what levels of participation this
 +suggests for different interests.\
 +\
 + *See* [Where do you stand?​](stance)\
 +\
 + **5** Invest as much effort in preparation as participation with
 +outside interests.\
 +\
 + *See Preparation in* [*It takes time*\
 +](time)\
 + **6** Run internal participation processes to make sure your own
 +organisation is committed and can deliver.\
 +\
 + *See Preparation in* [It takes time](time)\
 +\
 + **7** Be open and honest about what you are offering or seeking, and
 +communicate in the language of those you are aiming to involve .\
 +\
 + *See Communication,​ Trust in the* [*A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl)\
 + **8** Make contact informally with key interests before running any
 +formal meetings.\
 +\
 + *See Preparation in* [It takes time](time)*,​ Networking in the*
 +[*A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl) *\
 +* **9** Build on existing organisations and networks - but don't use
 +them as the only channel of communication and involvement.\
 +\
 + See *Networking,​ Voluntary sector in the* [*A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl)\
 + ​**10** Consider the time and resources you will need.\
 +\
 + *See* [It takes time\
 +](time) *\
 +*
 +
 +How to..
 +========
 +
 +This section takes the guidelines above and issues discussed in the more
 +theoretical sections and suggests how to tackle the main tasks likely to
 +crop up in a participation process. It does so by looking at the key
 +issues from a number of angles, providing checklists, and signposting
 +you on to more detail to other sections in the guide and items in the
 +A-Z section. However, it should be treated as guidance only - not a
 +step-by-step manual.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +clarify why you want to involve others
 +-------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Why is it necessary to involve other people? Is it for your benefit,
 +theirs, or both?\
 +\
 + **1** Consider what you are trying to achieve at the end of the day,
 +and why this may be best done with others. See *Benefits of
 +participation,​ Barriers to participation,​ Outcomes* [*in the A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl) *\
 +* **2** List the key interests who will have to be involved, both within
 +your organisation and without. See *Stakeholder analysis* [in the
 +A-Z](AZparticl)*\
 +\
 +* **3** After following the steps below, try out your ideas informally
 +on a few people you know.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +understand your role
 +-----------------------------------------------
 +
 +Some of the greatest problems arise because those promoting or managing
 +participation are wearing too many different hats.\
 +\
 + **1** Consider the part you may be expected to play in a participation
 +process:
 +
 +-   ​Someone who controls resources?
 +-   A go-between?
 +-   A representative of an interest group?
 +-   Some who will initiate, plan or manage the process?
 +-   ​Someone using participation techniques - producing newsletters,​
 +    holding meetings, running workshops?
 +
 +**2** If you are trying to do more than one of these, could there be
 +conflicts? How will others see you? Can you split roles with someone
 +else?\
 +\
 + **3** See *Role of the practitioner* in the [A-Z](AZparticl) and
 +earlier sections on [Where do you stand?​](stance) and [It takes
 +time](time) for more detailed descriptions of what is involved in
 +the process.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +decide where you stand
 +--------------------------------------------------
 +
 +One of the most important early decision is on the appropriate level of
 +participation,​ or stance you will take.\
 +\
 + **1** Clarify why you want to involve others, and your possible role -
 +see early steps above.\
 +\
 + **2** Read the [Framework for participation](frame) section, and
 +consider what level of participation is likely to be appropriate:​\
 +
 +-   ​Information:​ telling people what you are going to do.
 +-   ​Consultation**:​** offering people choices between options you have
 +    developed.
 +-   ​Deciding together: allowing others to contribute ideas and options,
 +    and deciding together.
 +-   ​Acting together: putting your choices into practice in partnership.
 +-   ​Supporting independent community initiatives - helping others carry
 +    out their own plans.
 +
 +**3** Review who the key interests are, and what level of participation
 +will be appropriate for each. See *Stakeholders* [*in the A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +prepare for participation
 +------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Experienced trainers and facilitators reckon that 80 per cent of the
 +potential for success lies in preparing well before engaging with
 +individuals and groups.\
 +\
 + **1** See the Preparation section in [*It Takes time*.](time) Work
 +through the internal agenda within your group or organisation. For
 +example:
 +
 +-   Are your colleagues agreed on what they wish to achieve, and the
 +    level of participation?​
 +-   Have you flushed out any hidden agendas?
 +-   Will the organisation be able to deliver on any promises?
 +
 +**2** Make contact informally with key interests.
 +
 +-   ​Review the levels of participation different interests may seek.
 +-   ​Consider the possible obstacles which may occur, and the support you
 +    will need.
 +
 +**3** Begin to develop a strategy which covers:
 +
 +-   The main deadlines
 +-   ​Resources needed
 +-   ​Technical support available
 +
 +See the [Signposts from theory to practice](theory) section,
 +*Budgets for participation,​ Timeline*[*in the A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +choose participation methods
 +--------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +The [Easy answers](easy) section outlines what can occur if you
 +don't think through carefully what methods to use.\
 +\
 + **1** See the [Signposts](theory) section for a theoretical
 +discussion, and pointers to topics and methods featured [*in the A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl)\
 + **2** In choosing a method consider:
 +
 +-   Is it appropriate for the level of participation?​ For example,
 +    powerful techniques like Planning for Real which give everyone a say
 +    are not appropriate for consultation processes where you are really
 +    only offering people limited choices.
 +-   Do you have the necessary skills and resources? A slide show may be
 +    more effective than a video.
 +-   Can you follow through? There is no point doing a survey unless you
 +    can handle the responses and use the information.
 +-   Do you need help? An experienced trainer or facilitator may be
 +    necessary for some of the more complex methods.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +develop support within your organisation
 +---------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Many participation processes fail because the organisations promoting
 +the process cannot deliver when others respond.\
 +\
 + **1** See the section [It takes time.](time) After reviewing the
 +issues there and above (in ...prepare for participation):​\
 +\
 + **2** Use internally some of the techniques you plan to use externally:
 +
 +-   ​Produce communication materials in draft.
 +-   Run workshop sessions.
 +-   ​Encourage others within the organisation to take ownership of the
 +    proposals, options or ideas and work them through informally with
 +    other interests. That is the best way to gain internal commitment or
 +    discover what problems may arise later.
 +
 +See *Commitment planning, Ownership* [*in the A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +and develop your skills as an enabler
 +------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Although many of the techniques suggested in this guide are relatively
 +simple, it takes some degree of confidence to run a workshop with
 +community interests for the first time or perhaps argue through with
 +colleagues the need for a long-term participation process. Here are a
 +few suggestions on how to develop your confidence and capability:
 +
 +-   ​Contact anyone within your organisation,​ or locally, with
 +    facilitation,​ training or general community development experience
 +    and talk through your plans.
 +-   ​Contact one of the organisations listed in this guide who offer
 +    training and support
 +-   Find a low-risk opportunity to try running a workshop using some of
 +    the simpler techniques.
 +-   Or even better run a workshop jointly with an experienced
 +    practitioner - perhaps contacted through one of the organisations
 +    listed.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +choose an appropriate structure
 +-----------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Participation is not necessarily achieved just by setting up a forum,
 +working group, committee, steering group or other structure. On the
 +other hand, if you are planning or managing a participation process you
 +will need some point of accountability,​ and the key interests may need
 +to work together formally as well as creatively. In planning the
 +process:\
 +\
 + **1** Clarify to whom you are accountable at the outset.\
 +\
 + **2** If you are working at the \`acting together'​ level of
 +participation help key interests form a working group or steering group
 +when appropriate.\
 +\
 + **3** Review your role and accountability with that new group.\
 +\
 + See items on the structures mentioned, and *Accountability,​ Structures
 +for participation*,​ *Terms of reference* [*in the A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Summary
 +-------
 +
 +Participation processes do not run on rails, and they cannot be set out
 +as a linear step-by-step process. Each of the items above may be seen as
 +a problem which has to be tackled, but not necessarily solved at one go.
 +Plan, act, review - or as they say in the States \`do it, fix it, try
 +it'.\
 +\
 + ​Bearing that in mind here is a summary of the main tasks.\
 +\
 + **The main tasks in summary\
 +\
 + 1** Clarify why the participation process is being started, who has the
 +final say, and what your brief is.\
 +\
 + See *Accountability,​ Aims and objectives, Mission.* [*in the A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl) *\
 +* **2** Identify key community interests, including voluntary and
 +community organisations.\
 +\
 + See *Community profiling, Networking, Stakeholder analysis.* [*in the
 +A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl) *\
 +* **3** Consider the level of participation appropriate,​ make informal
 +contacts to identify local concerns, and whether your stance - the level
 +you are adopting - is likely to be acceptable.\
 +\
 + See *Level of participation,​ Networking.* [*in the A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl) *\
 +* **4** Run a workshop session(s) within your organisation to ensure key
 +people are clear about the purpose of the participation process, the
 +roles and responsibilities,​ and the answers to basic questions which
 +will be asked when you go public.\
 +\
 + See *Barriers to participation,​ Workshops* [*in the A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl) *\
 +* **5** Consider the stance (Inform, Consult etc.) you are taking in
 +more detail, and in the light of that decide on what methods you will
 +use.\
 +\
 + See *Levels of participation* [*in the A-Z*\
 +](AZparticl) *\
 +* **6** Review whether your organisation will be able to respond to the
 +feedback, and follow through on any decisions reached.\
 + ***\
 +* 7** Review your timescale, and prepare an action plan based on the
 +level of participation. See *Action planning* [in the
 +A-Z](AZparticl)
 +
 +### Final sections are [the A-Z](AZparticl) and [Resources](resource)
  
partnerships/guide/howto.txt ยท Last modified: 2017/06/12 10:20 (external edit)