User Tools

Site Tools


partnerships:guide:main1

Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

partnerships:guide:main1 [2017/06/12 10:20] (current)
Line 1: Line 1:
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +The Guide to Effective Participation
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +##### | [Contents](main1#​anchor426596) | [Key ideas](main1#​RTFToC1) | [Easy](main1#​RTFToC2) | [Frame](main1#​RTFToC13) | [Signs](main1#​RTFToC29) | [Guides](main1#​RTFToC35) | [How to](main1#​RTFToC36) | [Ref](main1) | [A-D](AZpartic) | [E-K](EK) | [L-R](LR) | [S-Z](SZ) |
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +\
 + Pages prepared by [David Wilcox](mailto:​dwilcox@pavilion.co.uk) August
 +19 1996.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +\
 +
 +This is the contents and main section of the Guide with references on to
 +the [A-Z of Effective Participation](AZpartic). Back to the
 +[Communities Online Forum.](../​index)
 +
 +The Guide
 +---------
 +
 +![](../​images/​redball.gif)**[Foreword](main1#​anchor80854)** and
 +**[Introduction](main1#​RTFToC14)**
 +
 +![](../​images/​redball.gif)[A guided tour](main1#​anchor91180)
 +
 +![](../​images/​redball.gif)[Acknowledgements](main1#​RTFToC25)
 +
 +![](../​images/​redball.gif)**[10 key ideas about
 +participation](main1#​RTFToC1)**
 +
 +![](../​images/​redball.gif)**[Easy answers](main1#​RTFToC2)**
 +
 +[\`What we need is a public meeting'​](main1#​RTFToC3)
 +
 +[\`A good leaflet, video and exhibition will get the message
 +across'​](main1#​RTFToC4)
 +
 +[\`Commission a survey'​](main1#​RTFToC5)
 +
 +[\`Appoint a liaison officer'​](main1#​RTFToC6)
 +
 +[\`Work through the voluntary sector'​](main1#​RTFToC7)
 +
 +[\`Set up a consultative committee'​](main1#​RTFToC8)
 +
 +[\`There'​s no time to do proper consultation'​](main1#​RTFToC9)
 +
 +[\`Run a Planning for Real session'​](main1#​RTFToC10)
 +
 +[\`It'​s technical - requiring a professional
 +solution'​](main1#​RTFToC11)
 +
 +[\`Bring in consultants expert in community
 +participation'​](main1#​RTFToC12)
 +
 +![](../​images/​redball.gif)**[A framework for
 +participation](main1#​RTFToC13)**
 +
 +[Three dimensions of the framework](main1#​RTFToC14)
 +
 +[The nature of effective participation](main1#​RTFToC15)
 +
 +![](../​images/​redball.gif)**[Where do you stand?​](main1#​RTFToC16)**
 +
 +[Choosing a level - taking a stance](main1#​RTFToC17)
 +
 +[Stance 1: Information](main1)
 +
 +[Stance 2: Consultation](main1#​RTFToC19)
 +
 +[Stance 3: Deciding together](main1#​RTFToC20)
 +
 +[Stance 4: Acting together](main1#​RTFToC21)
 +
 +[Stance 5: Supporting local initiatives](main1#​RTFToC22)
 +
 +![](../​images/​redball.gif)**[It takes time](main1#​RTFToC23)**
 +
 +[Initiation](main1#​anchor965027)
 +
 +[Preparation](main1#​anchor965914)
 +
 +[Participation](main1#​anchor973181)
 +
 +[Continuation](main1#​anchor977346)
 +
 +![](../​images/​redball.gif)**[Signposts from theory to
 +practice](main1#​RTFToC29)**
 +
 +[The nature of signposting](main1#​RTFToC30)
 +
 +[The starting point - problems](main1#​RTFToC31)
 +
 +[The end point - participation methods](main1#​RTFToC32)
 +
 +[The bridge - key issues](main1#​RTFToC33)
 +
 +[A community participation questions set](main1#​RTFToC34)
 +
 +![](../​images/​redball.gif)**[Guidelines](main1#​RTFToC35)**
 +
 +![](../​images/​redball.gif)**[How to..](main1#​RTFToC36)**
 +
 +[...clarify why you want to involve others](main1#​RTFToC37)
 +
 +[...understand your role](main1)
 +
 +[...decide where you stand](main1#​RTFToC39)
 +
 +[...prepare for participation](main1#​RTFToC40)
 +
 +[...choose participation methods](main1#​RTFToC41)
 +
 +[...develop support within your organisation](main1#​RTFToC42)
 +
 +[... and develop your skills as an enabler](main1#​RTFToC43)
 +
 +[...choose an appropriate structure](main1#​RTFToC44)
 +
 +[Summary](main1#​RTFToC45)
 +
 +![](../​images/​redball.gif) **[Reference](main1#​anchor870873)**
 +
 +Useful publications\
 + ​Useful organisations
 +
 +##### Top of [Contents](main1#​anchor426596)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Foreword
 +========
 +
 +Over the past ten years there has been a growing tendency to attempt to
 +get the community either individually or collectively to become involved
 +in the delivery of services at a local level.\
 +\
 + The citizens charter, community care, the Housing Acts and City
 +Challenge all offer the community an opportunity to play a role as
 +either partners, providers or consumers. However, it is seductively easy
 +to rush into participation that can be fraught with dangers.\
 +\
 + ​Before getting involved both the service providers and the community
 +would do well to pause for thought. What level of participation do we
 +want? What are the pitfalls? What is the best way of going about it?
 +These are all questions that the community and the service providers
 +(statutory as well as voluntary) should seek to answer before embarking
 +on a participatory journey.\
 +\
 + Too often in the past the road to participation has been paved with
 +good intentions only to lead up time consuming and wasteful dead-ends
 +which result in disillusionment and resentment for all concerned.\
 +\
 + ​Participation,​ like democracy, has meant many things to many people.
 +The opportunities for participation are there to be grasped but only if
 +all those involved have a common understanding and share a common
 +language.\
 +\
 + This guide provides both a theoretical framework for common
 +understanding and a dictionary to facilitate the dialogue that can lead
 +to successful participation. The guide also provides practical advice on
 +tools and techniques that can be used to identify blocks and find
 +solutions.\
 +\
 + ​Reflecting on my own experience of working as a local authority
 +community worker, a consultant and now in a new university I can readily
 +see how the guide could be useful in a variety of ways and settings.\
 +\
 + For instance, in teaching the guide could provide a starting point to
 +examine the whole concept of participation and the potential pitfalls.
 +In a consultancy/​training role the guide could be used to assist the
 +client establish where they are on the \`map' of participation and also
 +where they consider the other players to be. This analysis should
 +provide the basis for more reasoned actions.\
 +\
 + For the local authority officer the guide provides a comprehensive
 +description of the implications of participation at whatever level. This
 +can be immensely useful when convincing sceptical managers and
 +councillors that consultation is more than just talking to people.\
 +\
 + One of the most common arguments against community participation is
 +that it is costly and time consuming. However, no-one has yet attempted
 +to calculate the costs in terms of time and lost good will of getting it
 +wrong.\
 +\
 + TQM (Total Quality Management) is based on the simple notion that it is
 +more cost effective to get it right first time than correct mistakes
 +later. This guide provides some guidelines for TQM in participation.\
 +\
 + The toolkit part of the pack provides a range of techniques and tools
 +from which organisations and individuals can select. The tools assist in
 +identifying blockages and suggest ways forward.\
 +\
 + ​Careful selection and application of the most appropriate tool is an
 +essential part of any job, but organisations using a tool for the first
 +time may need to seek advice. The guide provides some signposts to
 +further information about the tools and their use.\
 +\
 + The relationship between providers and customers in the public social
 +services is becoming an increasingly important one. Government is
 +pressing the case for participation and partnership in urban
 +regeneration. This book provides a guide to understanding and developing
 +that relationship.\
 +\
 + ​*Brian Batson\
 +\
 + ​Management in the Voluntary Sector Unit\
 +\
 + Leeds Metropolitan University*
 +
 +##### [Top of page](main1#​anchor426596)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Introduction This guide is intended for the growing number of people who
 +say \`I believe in the idea of community participation - but how do you
 +do it?' Practitioners who are asking, for example:
 +
 +-   How do you run a public meeting which doesn'​t turn into a slanging
 +    match?
 +-   When do you use surveys, and when do you get residents on a housing
 +    estate involved in building a model of the future they would like?
 +-   How do you deal with councillors who talk about participation,​ but
 +    are anxious not to lose control or status?
 +-   What is the difference between consultation,​ participation,​
 +    partnership and empowerment?​
 +
 +The idea and funding for the guide came from the Joseph Rowntree
 +Foundation, who promote and fund a wide range of research and
 +development projects that pose these types of problems.\
 +\
 + The original aim was to provide a quick overview of participation and
 +then signpost readers to techniques.\
 +\
 + ​However,​ it rapidly became clear that while there is plenty of theory
 +about participation,​ there aren't many cookbooks easily available. In
 +order to write the guide it was necessary to build a theoretical
 +framework - a signposting system - and then summarise key topics and
 +techniques in an A-Z of effective participation.
 +
 +A health warning
 +----------------
 +
 +Although this guide draws on a wide range of expertise, and drafts have
 +been read by experienced practitioners,​ it hasn't been tested as a whole
 +in the field. All the techniques are drawn from practice, but some come
 +from Operational Research, some from community development,​ some from
 +commercial consultancy and training. It is a mixed menu. I hope readers
 +will let me know what works well, and what needs improvement,​ so that I
 +can develop an improved later edition. See the inside front cover for
 +details on how to comment.\
 +\
 + I hope it is also clear from the text that techniques - however
 +useful - are no substitue for the longer-term programmes of training and
 +support likely to be needed when local groups take on major projects.
 +
 +The quotations
 +--------------
 +
 +I have sprinkled quotations through the guide to show that few ideas are
 +new, and they have often been expressed rather better elsewhere. I am
 +conscious that most are from dead white men, who are strongly
 +represented in the handy directories from which they were drawn. I hope
 +readers can offer some more contemporary gems.
 +
 +Who are you?
 +------------
 +
 +The guide is aimed mainly at people who have the task of starting and
 +managing participation processes, or who control funds and other
 +resources.
 +
 +Who am I?
 +---------
 +
 +I started my working life as a journalist, mainly writing about
 +planning, housing, transport and development in London. For the past 15
 +years I have specialised in consultancy and training for groups setting
 +up partnership organisations like development trusts, and in designing
 +national programmes to support them. The guide reflects this background
 +and approach rather than, for example, social or health care.
 +
 +Use of material
 +---------------
 +
 +The guide is intended to be a resource which groups and organisations
 +can develop for their own purposes, and you are free to copy and use
 +material in the guide for internal training. I would be interested in
 +any examples of this use, together with comments and additions for a
 +later edition.\
 +\
 + If you would like to use the material more extensively,​ please contact
 +me at the address on the inside cover.\
 +\
 + David Wilcox\
 + March 1994
 +
 +##### [Top of page](main1#​anchor426596)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +A guided tour The front of the guide is a mixture of theory and practice
 +which signposts readers to topics and methods for participation in the
 +A-Z at the back. It doesn'​t read like a step-by-step manual or cookbook
 +for several reasons:
 +
 +-   Every situation is different, and while there are some common
 +    guidelines and pitfalls, you have to work out your own menu and
 +    which recipes are appropriate.
 +-   ​Effective and successful participation is about style and approach
 +    as much as particular recipes.
 +-   ​Different methods suit different people.
 +
 +Theory
 +------
 +
 +The main theoretical ideas are summarised under *10 key issues of
 +participation.* For example:
 +
 +-   I have adapted Sherry Arnstein'​s idea of a ladder of participation
 +    in which the rungs are different levels of participation that
 +    authorities may allow to citizens. Are people being manipulated,​ or
 +    offered some control over their lives?
 +-   ​Perhaps the most important issues then are who's who - and who
 +    decides. Who controls the money, the design of projects, how
 +    services are run? What are the different interests in the community?
 +    And who decides their levels on the ladder? These are the
 +    stakeholders.
 +-   This guide is written mainly for people - here termed
 +    practitioners - who have to make those decisions and work with the
 +    different interests.
 +-   This participation process takes place over time, and four main
 +    phases are identified: initiation, preparation,​ participation,​
 +    continuation.
 +-   ​Different interests may seek different levels of participation,​ and
 +    be involved at different phases of participation.
 +-   The commitment - or apathy - of different interests will depend
 +    mainly on the ownership they have of any ideas, and the involvement
 +    they are offered in putting ideas into practice.
 +
 +This theory is developed in more detail in later sections:\
 +\
 + *A Framework for participation* brings together the ideas about levels,
 +phases and stakeholders.\
 +\
 + ​*Where do you stand?* develops each of the levels in more detail, with
 +guidelines on when each may be most appropriate,​ and the methods you
 +might use.\
 +\
 + *It takes time* explores the phases of the process from initiation
 +through to continuation,​ and places strong emphasis on the need for
 +preparation before you start participation proper.\
 +\
 + ​*Signposts from theory to practice* identifies some common issues and
 +questions which keep cropping up in participation processes, and uses
 +them to provide some signposts to topics and techniques in the *A-Z
 +section*. Signposts is the most complex of the sections, and is included
 +so that you see the ideas which underlie the other sections.
 +
 +Practice
 +--------
 +
 +The first practical section - Easy Answers - comes directly after the
 +Key Issues to provide some light relief and a flavour of the
 +difficulties that off-the-shelf recipes can produce. Later there are two
 +sections which offer practical suggestions:​\
 +\
 + ​Guidelines on how to... provides some overall guidelines for
 +participation,​ then deals with the main tasks in the participation
 +process from the point of view of someone planning and managing the\
 + ​process.
 +
 +The A-Z
 +-------
 +
 +The A-Z section is a mix of topics and methods which aims to provide a
 +pool of ideas and practical advice to supply more detail for the theory
 +and practice sections.
 +
 +Using the guide
 +---------------
 +
 +The guide is not designed to be read through from front to back - you
 +should be able to dip in to it and find cross-references to other
 +sections which will lead you to areas of interest. There is deliberately
 +quite a lot of repetition to allow for this. However, I suggest:
 +
 +-   Read the sections on 10 Key Issues and the Framework before tackling
 +    any of the practical detailed sections.
 +-   Use Easy Answers as a way to find some pointers to key practical
 +    issues in the A-Z.
 +-   Only try and use the Guidelines on how to ... section when you feel
 +    familiar with most of the rest of the guide.
 +
 +The menu bar below - which appears throughout the Guide - should help
 +with navigation.
 +
 +##### [Top of page](main1#​anchor426596)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +##### [Contents](main1#​anchor426596) | [Key ideas](main1#​RTFToC1) | [Easy](main1#​RTFToC2) | [Frame](main1#​RTFToC13) | [Signs](main1#​RTFToC29) | [Guides](main1#​RTFToC35) | [How to](main1#​RTFToC36) | [Ref](main1) | [A-D](AZpartic) | [E-K](EK) | [L-R](LR) | [S-Z](SZ) |
 +
 +\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Acknowledgements
 +================
 +
 +This guide is a compilation of other people'​s ideas, brought together
 +during development of the guide, and from work on consultancy projects
 +over the past 15 years.\
 +\
 + The suggestion for the guide, came from the Joseph Rowntree Foundation,
 +where Dr Janet Lewis and John Low have provided continuing support and
 +encouragement.\
 +\
 + After seminars with practitioners,​ an editorial group of Ann Holmes,
 +Joan Kean, Charles Ritchie and Jerry Smith worked with me to create the
 +main theoretical framework for the guide. They have provided continuing
 +inspiration and direction.\
 +\
 + ​Charles Ritchie and Joan Kean also provided some of the techniques, and
 +thinking on how these could be signposted. Brian Batson provided
 +additional techniques and comments, and Christine Flecknoe several of
 +the topics. Annie Rosewarne, Steve Skinner, Steve Trivett, and Sarah del
 +Tufo made helpful comments on drafts. Brian Sayer gave early advice on
 +the overall structure and editorial approach.\
 +\
 + A seminar of practitioners organised by Jeff Bishop and Geoff Caplan in
 +Glasgow in 1993 provided valuable material for the sections on
 +participation processes.\
 +\
 + My clients over the years have also helped develop this guide. In
 +particular, the ideas on levels of participation,​ and the techniques
 +relevant to them, were developed with Les Robinson and and Diane
 +Warburton for St Helen'​s borough council ten years ago.\
 +\
 + ​Apologies to anyone whose assistance I have not acknowledged. Any
 +errors are mine.\
 +\
 + © David Wilcox. However, material from this guide may be quoted in
 +other publications or used, with attribution,​ for training purposes. I
 +plan to develop a later edition and would be glad to receive comments,
 +contributions,​ and ideas for further development of the material.\
 +\
 + David Wilcox\
 + ​Partnership\
 + 13 Pelham Square\
 + ​Brighton BN1 4ET, UK\
 + ​Telephone +44 (0)1273 677377\
 + Fax +44 (0)1273 677377273 677379\
 + Email <​dwilcox@pavilion.co.uk>​\
 + ​Published by Partnership Books.\
 + ISBN 1-870298-00-4\
 +\
 + The Joseph Rowntree Foundation has supported this project as part of
 +its programme of research and innovative development projects, which it
 +hopes will be of value to policy makers and practitioners. The facts
 +presented and views expressed in this report, however, are those of the
 +authors and not necessarily those of the Foundation.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +10 key ideas about participation
 +
 +##### [Contents](main1#​anchor426596) | [Key ideas](main1#​RTFToC1) | [Easy](main1#​RTFToC2) | [Frame](main1#​RTFToC13) | [Signs](main1#​RTFToC29) | [Guides](main1#​RTFToC35) | [How to](main1#​RTFToC36) | [Ref](main1) | [A-D](AZpartic) | [E-K](EK) | [L-R](LR) | [S-Z](SZ) |
 +
 +Behind the detailed suggestions in the guide about how to manage
 +participation effectively are 10 key ideas. Each of these is also dealt
 +with in the A-Z and in other sections.
 +
 +Level of participation
 +----------------------
 +
 +Sherry Arnstein, writing in 1969 about citizen involvement in planning
 +processes in the United States, described a ladder of participation with
 +eight steps. I have altered this model to five stances:
 +
 +-   ​Information
 +-   ​Consultation
 +-   ​Deciding together
 +-   ​Acting togetherSupporting independent community interests
 +
 +\
 + I do not suggest any one stance is better than any other - it is rather
 +a matter of \`horses for courses'​. Different levels are appropriate at
 +different times to meet the expectations of different interests.\
 +\
 + ​Here'​s the original Arnstein model.\
 +\
 + ​![](Arn.gif)\
 +\
 + [on to the five stance model](main1#​anchor320983)\
 +\
 + **1 Manipulation and 2 Therapy.** Both are non participative. The aim
 +is to cure or educate the participants. The proposed plan is best and
 +the job of participation is to achieve public support by public
 +relations.\
 +\
 + **3 Informing.** A most important first step to legitimate
 +participation. But too frequently the emphasis is on a one way flow of
 +information. No channel for feedback.\
 +\
 + **4 Consultation.** Again a legitimate step - attitude surveys,
 +neighbourhood meetings and public enquiries. But Arnstein still feels
 +this is just a window dressing ritual.\
 +\
 + **5 Placation.** For example, co-option of hand-picked '​worthies'​ onto
 +committees. It allows citizens to advise or plan ad infinitum but
 +retains for power holders the right to judge the legitimacy or
 +feasibility of the advice.\
 +\
 + **6 Partnership.** Power is in fact redistributed through negotiation
 +between citizens and power holders. Planning and decision-making
 +responsibilities are shared e.g. through joint committees.\
 +\
 + **7 Delegated power.** Citizens holding a clear majority of seats on
 +committees with delegated powers to make decisions. Public now has the
 +power to assure accountability of the programme to them.\
 +\
 + **8 Citizen Control.** Have-nots handle the entire job of planning,
 +policy making and managing a programme e.g. neighbourhood corporation
 +with no intermediaries between it and the source of funds.
 +
 +Initiation and process
 +----------------------
 +
 +\
 + This guide deals with situations where someone, or some organisation,​
 +seeks to involve others at some level - that is, participation doesn'​t
 +just happen, it is initiated. Someone (termed here a practitioner) then
 +manages a process over time, and allows others involved more or less
 +control over what happens. In the guide the process is described during
 +four phases: Initiation - Preparation - Participation - Continuation.
 +
 +Control
 +-------
 +
 +\
 + The initiator is in a strong position to decide how much or how little
 +control to allow to others - for example, just information,​ or a major
 +say in what is to happen. This decision is equivalent to taking a stand
 +on the ladder - or adopted a stance about the level of participation.
 +
 +Power and purpose
 +-----------------
 +
 +\
 + ​Understanding participation involves understanding power: the ability
 +of the different interests to achieve what they want. Power will depend
 +on who has information and money. It will also depend on people'​s
 +confidence and skills. Many organisations are unwilling to allow people
 +to participate because they fear loss of control: they believe there is
 +only so much power to go around, and giving some to others means losing
 +your own.\
 +\
 + ​However,​ there are many situations when working together allows
 +everyone to achieve more than they could on their own. These represent
 +the benefits of participation.
 +
 +Role of the practitioner
 +------------------------
 +
 +\
 + This guide is written mainly for people who are planning or managing
 +participation processes - here termed \`practitioners'​. Because these
 +practitioners control much of what happens it is important they
 +constantly think about the part they are playing.
 +
 +Stakeholders and community
 +--------------------------
 +
 +\
 + I think that \`stakeholders'​ is one piece of jargon which really helps
 +our understanding of participation. On the other hand \`community'​ can
 +be a hindrance.\
 +\
 + A stakeholder is anyone who has a stake in what happens. The term
 +forces us to think about who will be affected by any project, who
 +controls the information,​ skills and money needed, who may help and who
 +may hinder. It does not follow that everyone affected has an equal say;
 +the idea of the ladder is to prompt thinking about who has most
 +influence.\
 +\
 + ​Community is a problem term if it is used as a blanket description for
 +\`all those other people'​. There are many communities,​ defined by, for
 +example, people'​s shared interests, locality, age or gender. The
 +\`community'​ which participates will depend on the project or programme
 +because different people are interested in different issues. Where
 +community is used in the guide it is shorthand for communities.
 +
 +Partnership
 +-----------
 +
 +\
 + ​Partnership,​ like community, is a much abused term. I think it is
 +useful when a number of different interests willingly come together
 +formally or informally to achieve some common purpose. The partners
 +don't have to be equal in skills, funds or even confidence, but they do
 +have to trust each other and share some commitment. In participation
 +processes - as in our personal and social lives - building trust and
 +commitment takes time.
 +
 +Commitment
 +----------
 +
 +\
 + ​Commitment is the other side of apathy: people are committed when they
 +want to achieve something, apathetic when they don't. But what leads to
 +commitment? Not, in my experience, telling people \`you ought to care',
 +inviting them to public meetings or bombarding them with glossy
 +leaflets. I think people care about what they are interested in, and
 +become committed when they feel they can achieve something. Hard selling
 +won't achieve that. If people are apathetic about your proposals, it may
 +simply be that they don't share your interests or concerns.
 +
 +Ownership of ideas
 +------------------
 +
 +\
 + ​People are most likely to be committed to carry something through if
 +they have a stake in the idea. One of the biggest barriers to action is
 +\`not invented here'. The antidote is to allow people to say \`we
 +thought of that'. In practice that means running brainstorming
 +workshops, helping people think through the practicality of ideas, and
 +negotiating with others a result which is acceptable to as many people
 +as possible.\
 +\
 + ​Clearly this isn't possible if you are simply providing people with
 +information about your own ideas, or consulting them on a limited number
 +of ideas of your own. Apathy is directly proportional to the stake
 +people have in ideas and outcomes.
 +
 +Confidence and capacity
 +-----------------------
 +
 +\
 + Ideas and wish lists are little use if they cannot be put into
 +practice. The ability to do that depends as much on people'​s confidence
 +and skills as it does on money. Many participation processes involve
 +breaking new ground - tackling difficult projects and setting up new
 +forms of organisations.\
 +\
 + It is unrealistic to expect individuals or small groups suddenly to
 +develop the capability to make complex decisions and become involved in
 +major projects. They need training - or better still the opportunity to
 +learn formally and informally, to develop confidence, and trust in each
 +other.\
 +\
 + Each or these terms is dealt with in more detail in the A-Z of
 +effective participation.\
 +\
 + **The next sections**\
 +\
 + Each or the terms above is dealt with in more detail in the [A-Z
 +section](AZpartic),​ and you may wish to skip the following sections
 +and browse the A-Z, then return to some of the theory.\
 +\
 + The first theoretical section, [A framework for
 +participation](main1#​RTFToC13),​ takes the revised ladder of
 +participation,​ and extends it across time - the process - and across
 +interests - the stakeholders.\
 +\
 + Top of [Key ideas](main1#​RTFToC1)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Easy answers
 +
 +##### [Contents](main1#​anchor426596) | [Key ideas](main1#​RTFToC1) | [Easy](main1#​RTFToC2) | [Frame](main1#​RTFToC13) | [Signs](main1#​RTFToC29) | [Guides](main1#​RTFToC35) | [How to](main1#​RTFToC36) | [Ref](main1) | [A-D](AZpartic) | [E-K](EK) | [L-R](LR) | [S-Z](SZ) |
 +
 +Faced with ideas like levels of participation,​ different phases and
 +roles you may be tempted by some quick fixes for your participation
 +problems. These can bring their own difficulties. For example:
 +
 +-   ​[\`What we need is a public meeting'​](main1#​RTFToC3)
 +-   [\`A good leaflet, video and exhibition will get the message
 +    across'​](main1#​RTFToC4)
 +-   ​[\`Commission a survey'​](main1#​RTFToC5)
 +-   ​[\`Appoint a liaison officer'​](main1#​RTFToC6)
 +-   ​[\`Work through the voluntary sector'​](main1#​RTFToC7)
 +-   ​[\`Set up a consultative committee'​](main1#​RTFToC8)
 +-   ​[\`There'​s no time to do proper consultation'​](main1#​RTFToC9)
 +-   ​[\`Run a Planning for Real session'​](main1#​RTFToC10)
 +-   ​[\`It'​s technical - requiring a professional
 +    solution'​](main1#​RTFToC11)
 +-   ​[\`Bring in consultants expert in community
 +    participation'​](main1#​RTFToC12)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +\`What we need is a public meeting'​ You will certainly need to meet the
 +public, but the conventional set-up with a fixed agenda, platform and
 +rows of chairs is a stage set for conflict. Among the problems are:
 +
 +-   The audience will contain many different interests, with different
 +    levels of understanding and sympathy. It is difficult to know how to
 +    pitch a presentation.
 +-   It is very difficult to keep to a fixed agenda - people may bring up
 +    any issue they chose and you just look authoritarian if you try and
 +    shut them up.
 +-   Few people get a chance to have a say.
 +
 +As an alternative:​
 +
 +-   ​Identify and meet key interests informally.
 +-   Run workshop sessions for different interest groups.
 +-   Bring people together after the workshop sessions in a report-back
 +    seminar. By then everyone should have some ideas in common.
 +-   If you must do a one-off meeting, split people into small groups
 +    early on and run a report back in the second half.
 +-   Make clear in all publicity that it is an ideas session with group
 +    discussion.
 +-   Plan the layout of the room(s) so you avoid \`them and us', and can
 +    split easily into groups.
 +-   In short, make a public meeting the last thing you do, not the
 +    first.
 +
 +See [Access](AZpartic),​ Public meetingsWorkshopsin the
 +[A-Z](AZpartic)
 +
 +##### Top of [Easy answers](main1#​RTFToC2)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +\`A good leaflet, video and exhibition will get the message across'​
 +These may well be useful tools, but it is easy to be beguiled by the
 +products and forget what you are trying to achieve.\
 +\
 + ​*Before you brief the production team first consider:*
 +
 +-   What level of participation are you aiming for? If it is anything
 +    more than information-giving,​ you are looking for feedback and
 +    possibly other people'​s ideas and commitment. High-cost
 +    presentations suggest you have made up your mind.
 +-   What response do you want - and can you handle it?
 +-   Could you achieve more with lower-cost materials and more
 +    face-to-face contact?
 +
 +See Communications,​ Where do you stand?, Videos
 +
 +##### Top of [Easy answers](main1#​RTFToC2)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +\`Commission a survey'​ A questionnaire study and/or in-depth discussion
 +groups can be an excellent ways to start a participation process. On the
 +other hand they can be a magnificent way of avoiding the issue of what
 +you want by asking other people what they want. Fine, if you are then
 +able to deliver.\
 +\
 + *Bear in mind:*
 +
 +-   ​Surveys require expert design and piloting to be useful.
 +-   They are only as good as the brief you provide. Why do you want a
 +    survey?
 +-   It is unwise to jump from an analysis of the results straight to
 +    proposed solutions, particularly if you want the commitment of other
 +    interests. The analysis will inevitably be an abstraction,​ and the
 +    ideas will not be \`owned'​ by anyone unless people have a chance to
 +    think them through.
 +-   In planning a survey: first put yourself on the receiving end of the
 +    questioning,​ and second design it as part of a process which will
 +    lead through to some action.
 +
 +\
 + *See Surveys.*
 +
 +##### Top of [Easy answers](main1#​RTFToC2)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +\`Appoint a liaison officer'​ That may be a useful step, but not if
 +everyone else thinks it is the end of their involvement in the process.
 +Are you just trying to pass the buck to someone else ?\
 +\
 + *Aim to empower your liaison officer. Consider:*
 +
 +-   Do they have the necessary skills and resources for the job?
 +-   Will they get the backing of other colleagues?
 +-   Are they being expected to occupy conflicting roles - that is, wear
 +    too many hats? It is difficult to present yourself as a neutral
 +    facilitator if you are also making recommendations on funding. The
 +    temptation to manipulate agendas is strong.
 +
 +See It takes time.
 +
 +##### Top of [Easy answers](main1#​RTFToC2)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +\`Work through the voluntary sector'​ Voluntary bodies are a major route
 +to communities of interest, and may have people and resources to
 +contribute to the participation process. However, they are not \`the
 +community'​.
 +
 +-   There will be many small community groups who are not part of the
 +    more formalised voluntary sector.
 +-   ​Voluntary groups, like any organisations,​ will have their own
 +    agendas - funding targets to achieve, issues to pursue. They are not
 +    a neutral.
 +
 +Treat voluntary organisations as another sectoral interest in the
 +community - albeit a particularly important one:
 +
 +-   Check out organisations with a number of different sources. Having
 +    said all that, voluntary organisations will have a wealth of
 +    experience and are essential allies. They'​ve been through many of
 +    the problems of involving people before.
 +
 +See Community, Stakeholders,​ Voluntary sector.
 +
 +##### Top of [Easy answers](main1#​RTFToC2)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +\`Set up a consultative committee'​ Some focus for decision-making will
 +be necessary in anything beyond simple consultation processes. However:
 +
 +-   Even if a committee is elected or drawn from key interest groups it
 +    will not be a channel for reaching most people.
 +-   ​People invited to join a committee may feel uncomfortable about
 +    being seen as representatives.
 +-   The committee can just reinforce \`them and us' attitudes if some
 +    members have more power than others.
 +
 +Consider instead:
 +
 +-   A group which helps you plan the participation process.
 +-   ​Surveys,​ workshops and informal meetings to identify other people
 +    who might become actively involved.
 +-   A range of groups working on specific issues.
 +-   ​Defining any central group in terms of the longer term aim. For
 +    example, if a Management Board or Trust is a possibility,​ you are
 +    looking for a \`shadow'​ Board.
 +
 +See Committees, Workshops.
 +
 +##### Top of [Easy answers](main1#​RTFToC2)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +\`There'​s no time to do proper consultation'​ That may be the case if the
 +timetable is imposed externally - or do you feel that consultation will
 +raise questions you can't answer? Beware: the questions won't go away,
 +and you could be forced into a climb-down later on in the face of
 +protest.\
 +\
 + *If the timetable is genuinely tight:*
 +
 +-   ​Explain the pressure that you are under.
 +-   At least produce a leaflet or send out a letter.
 +-   Run a crash programme for those interested - perhaps over a weekend.
 +
 +See It takes time, Timeline.
 +
 +##### Top of [Easy answers](main1#​RTFToC2)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +\`Run a Planning for Real session'​ Special \`packaged'​ techniques can be
 +very powerful ways of getting people involved. However there are horses
 +for courses - no one technique is applicable to all situations. Are you
 +just falling into the technology trap - believing that a gadget will fix
 +the problem? This guide aims to suggest what is appropriate when.\
 +\
 + *See Planning for Real.*
 +
 +##### Top of [Easy answers](main1#​RTFToC2)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +\`It's technical - requiring a professional solution'​ If you believe
 +that, why consult anyone? Before following this arrogant course, reflect
 +on the many examples of disaster and political miscalculation where the
 +experts knew best.\
 +\
 + ​*Before leaving it to the experts consider:*
 +
 +-   Are you sure you know what the problem is - would everyone else
 +    agree?
 +-   Is there really only one way of fixing things?
 +-   Do you need the support of other interests to carry the proposals
 +    through? If you don't give them an early say in the solution they
 +    could become part of the problem.
 +
 +See Problem clarification,​ Decision-making.
 +
 +##### Top of [Easy answers](main1#​RTFToC2)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +\`Bring in consultants expert in community participation'​ There'​s some
 +truth in the saying that \`consultants are people who steal your watch
 +in order to tell you the time'. Often you have the answer yourself, and
 +you are just trying to avoid grappling with the issue. Of course there
 +are situations when you need outside expertise - whether technical, or
 +in clearing your own mind or facilitating the participation process.\
 +\
 + *If you do use consultants:​*
 +
 +-   Get a recommendation from a previous client if possible.
 +-   Give a clear brief on what you are trying to achieve, the level of
 +    control and boundaries for action. At the same time be prepared to
 +    discuss and, if necessary, renegotiate the brief.
 +-   ​Encourage them to ask hard questions and provide an independent
 +    perspective.
 +-   Play an active role in their work to provide continuing guidance and
 +    learn from the experience. Don't use the consultants as insulation.
 +-   Make sure you and your organisation can deliver in response to the
 +    ideas they produce, and you can handle things when they leave.
 +-   ​Include work within your organisation to parallel that with
 +    community interests. Many problem in participation processes arise
 +    within the promoting organisation.
 +-   Agree a realistic budget - then challenge the consultants to
 +    perform.
 +-   ​Remember that most consultancy exercises are only as good as the
 +    client.
 +
 +See [Consultants](AZpartic)*.*
 +
 +##### Top of [Easy answers](main1#​RTFToC2)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +A framework for participation
 +
 +##### [Contents](main1#​anchor426596) | [Key ideas](main1#​RTFToC1) | [Easy](main1#​RTFToC2) | [Frame](main1#​RTFToC13) | [Signs](main1#​RTFToC29) | [Guides](main1#​RTFToC35) | [How to](main1#​RTFToC36) | [Ref](main1) | [A-D](AZpartic) | [E-K](EK) | [L-R](LR) | [S-Z](SZ) |
 +
 +\
 +
 +This section summarises a theoretical framework for thinking about
 +participation which brings together ideas from the 10 Key Issues
 +section. The [summary](main1#​RTFToC14) below covers the main ideas:
 +
 +-   There are different levels of participation appropriate for
 +    different situations, and it is important to decide where you stand.
 +-   There isn't one \`community'​ but many interests - or stakeholders -
 +    to consider.
 +-   ​Participation takes time.
 +
 +These ideas are then developed in more detail in following sections:
 +
 +-   ​[Where do you stand?\
 +    ](main1#​RTFToC16)\
 +     The idea of levels of participation in practice\
 +    \
 +-   [It takes time\
 +    ](main1#​RTFToC23)\
 +     The phases of participation\
 +    \
 +-   ​[Signposts from theory to practice\
 +    ](main1#​RTFToC29)\
 +     A theoretical discussion about how to decide what methods to use.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Summary of the framework The framework is developed from the idea of a
 +ladder of participation discussed in the **10 Key Issues** section. The
 +framework adds two other dimensions to the idea of the level of
 +participation on a ladder:
 +
 +-   The phase or stage of participation.
 +-   ​Different interests - or stakeholders - may be at different levels
 +    or stages of participation.
 +
 +\
 + ​![](image12.gif)
 +
 +### 1 The level of participation - where do you stand?
 +
 +\
 + See the set of questions at the end of this section about who \`you'
 +are and what you are trying to achieve.\
 +\
 + The ladder of participation model described in the previous section
 +suggests some levels are better than others. In this framework I suggest
 +it is more of a case of horses for courses - different levels\
 + are appropriate in different circumstances.\
 +\
 + The key issue is what \`stance'​ are you taking as someone managing a
 +participation process, or controlling resources, and your reasons for
 +doing so.\
 +\
 + I suggest thinking of five levels - or stances - which offer increasing
 +degrees of control to the others involved.
 +
 +Information
 +
 +The least you can do is tell people what is planned.\
 +\
 +
 +Consultation
 +
 +You offer a number of options and listen to the feedback you get.\
 +\
 +
 +Deciding together
 +
 +You encourage others to provide some additional ideas and options, and
 +join in deciding the best way forward.\
 +\
 +
 +Acting together
 +
 +Not only do different interests decide together what is best, but they
 +form a partnership to carry it out.\
 +\
 +
 +Supporting independent community initiatives
 +
 +You help others do what they want - perhaps within a framework of
 +grants, advice and support provided by the resource holder.
 +
 +The '​lower'​ level of participation keep control with the initiator - but
 +they lead to less commitment from others.\
 +\
 + ​Compare this diagram with [Sherry Arnstein'​s
 +ladder](main1#​anchor304529) in 10 Key Issues\
 +\
 + ​![](Level.gif)\
 +\
 + Each of these levels is discussed in more detail in the next main
 +section: [Where do you stand?\
 +](main1#​RTFToC16) Back to the start of the
 +[summary](main1#​RTFToC14)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +2 The phase - where have you got to?\
 + ​Participation is a process in which people have to think through what
 +they want, consider some options, and work through what should happen. I
 +suggest there are four main phases:\
 +\
 + ​![](image14.gif)
 +
 +#### Initiation.
 +
 +\
 + The phase at which something triggers the need to involve people, and
 +you start to think what that involves.
 +
 +#### Preparation.
 +
 +\
 + The period when you think through the process, make the first contacts,
 +and agree an approach.
 +
 +#### Participation
 +
 +\
 + The phase in which you use participation methods with the main
 +interests in the community.
 +
 +#### Continuation
 +
 +\
 + What happens in this phase will depend very much on the level of
 +participation - you may be reporting back on consultation,​ or at another
 +level setting up partnership organisations.\
 +\
 + These different phases are discussed in more detail in the section [It
 +takes time\
 +](main1#​RTFToC23) Back to start of the [summary](main1#​RTFToC14)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +3 People - who is involved?\
 +\
 + ​![](image15.gif)\
 +\
 + Some people will want - or demand - more involvement than others.
 +Others will wish not to be involved. Identifying these different
 +interests - stakeholders - and negotiating the level of participation
 +appropriate is the third dimension of the framework\
 +\
 + Some of the main issues in participation are about where power and
 +control lies between these interests, and the role of \`you' in this.\
 +\
 + ​Before starting a participation process it is important to reflect on
 +the role you have - the hat you are wearing. The way you act may be
 +influenced by how far you control resources, to whom you are answerable.
 +People'​s attitudes to you will certainly be influenced by the role and
 +power they think you have.\
 +\
 + It is also essential to clarify the purpose of participation - because
 +that will determine which stakeholders benefit.\
 +\
 + These issues are discussed in the items on *Beneficiaries*,​ *Power* and
 +*Empowerment*.\
 +\
 + Back to start of the [summary](main1#​RTFToC14)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +The nature of effective participation I think participation may work
 +best for all concerned when each of the key interests - the
 +stakeholders - is satisfied with the level of participation at which
 +they are involved.\
 +\
 + That is, those who don't have much at stake may be happy to be informed
 +or consulted. Others will want to be involved in decisions and possibly
 +action to carry them out.\
 +\
 + The difficult task for the practitioner managing the process is to
 +identify these interests, help them work out what they want from the
 +process, and negotiate a route for them to achieve it.\
 +\
 + The power of the practitioner lies in influencing who will benefit.
 +Participation is not a neutal process. As yourself:
 +
 +-   What is the purpose of the process?
 +-   Who benefits? Who pays? Who controls?
 +
 +\
 + ​![](image16.gif)\
 +\
 + With different interests seeking different levels of participation,​ and
 +being in different phases, effective participation can seem like
 +shooting an arrow through a number of keyholes.\
 +\
 + Back to start of the [summary](main1#​RTFToC14)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Some early questions\
 + At the start of a participation process a number of key questions
 +should help you decide your approach:\
 +\
 + **Who are you? For example:**\
 +\
 + ​Someone in a position of power controlling funds or other resources.\
 + ​Someone with influence because you are planning or managing a
 +participation process.\
 + ​Someone with professional expertise or knowledge?\
 +\
 + ​**What do you want to achieve by working a participatory style**?
 +
 +-   To try and develop plans that meet people'​s expectations.
 +-   To give people a say in the plans.
 +-   To give people control over the solutions.
 +
 +Who will have the final say over decisions?
 +
 +-   ​Yourself.
 +-   A management team.
 +-   ​Everyone who gets involved.
 +-   A political institution or other body
 +
 +How ready are people, and organisations,​ to work in a participatory way?
 +
 +-   Do they have the desire?
 +-   Do they have the skills?
 +-   Do they have the authority?
 +
 +Back to start of the [summary](main1#​RTFToC14)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Where do you stand?
 +
 +##### [Contents](main1#​anchor426596) | [Key ideas](main1#​RTFToC1) | [Easy](main1#​RTFToC2) | [Frame](main1#​RTFToC13) | [Signs](main1#​RTFToC29) | [Guides](main1#​RTFToC35) | [How to](main1#​RTFToC36) | [Ref](main1) | [A-D](AZpartic) | [E-K](EK) | [L-R](LR) | [S-Z](SZ) |
 +
 +One of the main ideas in the Guide is that of level of participation,​
 +and the an organisation promoting participation takes a stance about the
 +level it suggests is appropriate for different interests. This section
 +deals with five levels.
 +
 +1.  [Information](main1#​anchor614917)
 +2.  [Consultation](main1#​RTFToC19)
 +3.  [Deciding together](main1#​RTFToC20)
 +4.  [Acting together](main1#​RTFToC21)
 +5.  [Supporting local initiatives](main1#​RTFToC22)
 +
 +Choosing a level - taking a stance
 +----------------------------------
 +
 +The previous section developed the idea of levels of participation based
 +on Arnstein'​s ladder described in **10 Key ideas.** Here each level is
 +dealt with in more detail, with suggestions on where it is appropriate.\
 +\
 + This section, as others, is written on the assumption that you are
 +promoting or managing a participation process. Your precise role will
 +affect what stance you take.\
 +\
 + For example, if you are controlling resources you may be very clear and
 +firm about how much say you are prepared to offer others. If you are
 +acting as a neutral facilitator you may be helping different interests
 +negotiate appropriate levels.\
 +\
 + For further discussion of these issues, see Some early questions at the
 +end of the previous section, the items on *Power* and *Role of the
 +practitioner.*\
 +\
 + Back to the summary of [A framework for
 +participation](main1#​RTFToC13)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Stance 1: Information
 +
 +##### [Where do you stand?​](main1#​RTFToC16) | [Information](main1#​anchor614917) | [Consultation](main1#​RTFToC19) | [Deciding](main1#​RTFToC20) | [Acting](main1#​RTFToC21) | [Supporting](main1#​RTFToC22)
 +
 +\
 +
 +Information-giving underpins all other levels of participation,​ and may
 +be appropriate on its own in some circumstances. However, you are likely
 +to hit problems if all you offer is information and people are expecting
 +more involvement.
 +
 +### Basics
 +
 +-   The information-giving stance is essentially a 'take it or leave it'
 +    approach.
 +-   ​People may not accept they can't have a say. Is there really no
 +    alternative to the ideas you are putting forward?
 +-   Your information will be judged on who you are and your style as
 +    well as what you say.
 +-   Even though you may not want much feedback, put yourself in the
 +    place of the people you are communicating with: the meaning of any
 +    communication lies in the response that you get - not what you say.
 +
 +### Where appropriate
 +
 +\
 + ​Information-only may be appropriate when:
 +
 +-   You have no room for manoeuvre and must follow one course of
 +    action - for example, where there is a clear legal requirement.
 +-   An authority is reporting a course of action which is essentially
 +    internal and doesn'​t affect others.
 +-   At the start of a consultation or other process, with the promise of
 +    more opportunity to participate later.
 +
 +Information-only is inappropriate when the following apply (alternative
 +stances in brackets):
 +
 +-   You are seeking to empower community interests. Information is
 +    necessary for empowerment,​ but seldom enough on its own (3, 4 or 5).
 +-   There are alternatives and others have a legitimate interest in
 +    developing them (3 or 4).
 +
 +### Methods
 +
 +\
 + See the [A-Z](AZpartic) for methods to use with this and other
 +levels. Consider the following:
 +
 +-   ​Print:​ leaflets, newsletters,​ etc.
 +-   ​Presentations at meetings.
 +-   ​Briefing the media through press releases and press conferences.
 +-   ​Advertising through posters, radio, press.
 +-   Film or video.
 +
 +Avoid any methods which imply that people can have a say.
 +
 +### Guidelines
 +
 +\
 + In planning how to inform people, and carrying this out:
 +
 +-   ​Consider what frame of mind your audience is in - for example, what
 +    do they expect or know already?
 +-   Try a simple presentation on colleagues or a less informed audience
 +    before you prepare materials.
 +-   Use language and ideas which your audience will find familiar.
 +-   Be clear about why you are just informing rather than consulting.
 +
 +### Possible problems
 +
 +\
 + *You have a low budget*.\
 + ​Concentrate on using existing channels of communication:​ local groups,
 +media, simple posters or leaflets. Be prepared to answer questions.\
 +\
 + *The PR department of your organisation wants to take over
 +communications*.\
 + ​Insist on getting the basic messages clear before anything gets
 +'​glossed up'. Work on one product - say a leaflet - and use that as the
 +reference for other things. Make sure you have internal agreement to any
 +messages.\
 +\
 + *You get no response from the audience you are addressing*.\
 + Since you are not asking people to become involved, that may be
 +understandable. However, ask a few people to play back to you what they
 +understood from your communication to see that you have got your message
 +across.\
 +\
 + ​*People want more say*.\
 + Do they have a case? Who is setting the rules? Take comments seriously.
 +It is easier to change the level of participation and your stance early
 +on. Later it may become an uncomfortable U-turn.
 +
 +### Information checklist
 +
 +\
 + ​Before taking up an information-giving stance consider:
 +
 +-   Are you clear which interests you are informing, and how much they
 +    know already?
 +-   Are they likely to be satisfied with only information?​
 +-   Can you present your proposals in a way people will understand and
 +    relate to?
 +-   Have you identified appropriate communication methods for the time
 +    available and audience?
 +-   Are you prepared to change your stance if people want more than
 +    information?​
 +
 +##### Top of [Where do you stand?​](main1#​RTFToC16)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Stance 2: Consultation
 +----------------------
 +
 +##### [Where do you stand?​](main1#​RTFToC16) | [Information](main1#​anchor614917) | [Consultation](main1#​RTFToC19) | [Deciding](main1#​RTFToC20) | [Acting](main1#​RTFToC21) | [Supporting](main1#​RTFToC22)
 +
 +\
 +
 +\
 + ​Consultation is appropriate when you can offer people some choices on
 +what you are going to do - but not the opportunity to develop their own
 +ideas or participate in putting plans into action.
 +
 +### Basics
 +
 +-   ​Consultation means giving people a restricted choice and role in
 +    solutions. You may consult on the problems, offer some options,
 +    allow comment, take account and then proceed - perhaps after
 +    negotiation. You are not asking for help in taking action.
 +-   All the basics of information-giving apply, plus the need to handle
 +    feedback.
 +
 +### Where appropriate
 +
 +\
 + The consultation stance is likely to be most appropriate when:
 +
 +-   You want to improve a service.
 +-   You have a clear vision and plans to implement a project or
 +    programme , and there appear to be a limited range of options.
 +-   These options can be set out in terms which community interests can
 +    understand and relate to their own concerns or needs.
 +-   The initiator of the proposals can handle feedback and is prepared
 +    to use this to choose between or modify options.
 +
 +It is inappropriate when the following apply (alternative stances in
 +brackets):
 +
 +-   You aren't going to take any notice of what people say.
 +-   You are seeking to empower community interests (3, 4 or 5).
 +-   You are not clear what you wish to do and are seeking ideas (3 or
 +    4).
 +-   You don't have the resources or skills to carry out the options
 +    presented, or other means of implementing (choose stance 4 or 5).
 +
 +### Methods
 +
 +\
 + ​Consider the following methods for consultation,​ detailed in the
 +[A-Z](AZpartic):​
 +
 +-   ​Surveys and market research.
 +-   ​Consultative meetings.
 +-   ​Consultative committees.
 +-   ​Simulations where the options and constraints are clear.
 +
 +These methods may be used in conjunction with information-giving and
 +presentational techniques, for example:
 +
 +-   ​Advertisements.
 +-   Media briefing.
 +-   ​Leaflets and posters.
 +-   ​Exhibitions.
 +-   ​Videos.
 +
 +### Guidelines
 +
 +-   ​Consider what response you want and how you will handle it as well
 +    as what you are presenting.
 +-   Make clear how realistic the different options are, and what the
 +    pros and cons are as you see them.
 +-   Avoid using methods like Planning for Real which encourage people to
 +    put forward their own ideas, unless you are moving to stance 3 -
 +    deciding together.
 +-   Be open about your own role, who ultimately takes decisions, how and
 +    when this will be done.
 +-   If you set up a consultative committee, give it clear terms of
 +    reference.
 +
 +### Possible problems
 +
 +\
 + *You have a low budget.*\
 + Use basic information-giving methods plus meetings hosted by local
 +organisations. Run an open meeting at the end of the process.\
 +\
 + *The PR department wants to take it over*.\
 + See information giving. Consider throughout: will people understand the
 +options, are they realistic, can we respond to feedback.\
 +\
 + *You don't have time to do things properly*.\
 + Be honest about the deadlines, and use the time-pressure to advantage.\
 +\
 + *You get more - or less - response than expected*.\
 + Was consultation the appropriate stance? Did you think it through from
 +the audience'​s point of view?
 +
 +### Consultation checklist
 +
 +\
 + ​Before taking up a consultation stance consider:
 +
 +-   Are you clear which interests you are consulting, and have you the
 +    means to contact them?
 +-   Are they likely to be satisfied with consultation?​
 +-   Can you present your vision and options for achieving it in a way
 +    people will understand and relate to?
 +-   Have you identified appropriate communication methods for the time
 +    available and likely participants?​
 +-   Can you and your colleagues handle the feedback?
 +-   Have you arranged for a report back to those consulted?
 +-   Are you prepared to change your stance if people want more than
 +    consultation?​
 +-   Are you just seeking endorsement of your plans?
 +
 +##### Top of [Where do you stand?​](main1#​RTFToC16)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Stance 3: Deciding together
 +---------------------------
 +
 +##### [Where do you stand?​](main1#​RTFToC16) | [Information](main1#​anchor614917) | [Consultation](main1#​RTFToC19) | [Deciding](main1#​RTFToC20) | [Acting](main1#​RTFToC21) | [Supporting](main1#​RTFToC22)
 +
 +\
 +
 +Deciding together is a difficult stance because it can mean giving
 +people the power to choose without fully sharing the responsibility for
 +carrying decisions through.
 +
 +### Basics
 +
 +-   ​Deciding together means accepting other people'​s ideas, and then
 +    choosing from the options you have developed together.
 +-   The basics of consultation apply, plus the need to generate options
 +    together, choose between them, and agree ways forward.
 +-   The techniques are more complex.
 +-   ​People need more confidence to get involved.
 +-   The time scale for the process is likely to be much longer.
 +
 +### Where appropriate
 +
 +\
 + ​Deciding-together may be appropriate when:
 +
 +-   It is important that other people \`own' the solution.
 +-   You need fresh ideas.
 +-   There is enough time.
 +
 +Deciding together is inappropriate when the following apply (try
 +alternative stances in brackets).
 +
 +-   You have little room for manoeuvre (1 or 2).
 +-   You can't implement decisions yourself (4 or 5).
 +
 +### Methods
 +
 +\
 + ​Consider the following methods from the [A-Z](AZpartic):​
 +
 +-   ​Information-giving methods to start the process.
 +-   ​Stakeholder analysis to identify who should be involved.
 +-   SWOT analysis to understand where you are.
 +-   ​Brainstorming,​ Nominal Group Technique, Surveys to develop some
 +    options.
 +-   ​Cost/​Benefit Analysis to make choices.
 +-   ​Strategic Choice, Planning for Real, and other simulations as
 +    powerful overall techniques.
 +-   SAST and Action Planning to decide what next.
 +
 +### Guidelines
 +
 +-   Plan the process before you start. Give yourself enough time.
 +-   ​Define clearly the roles and responsibilities of the different
 +    interests - who has a say, who will take action.
 +-   Be open and honest about what you want to achieve, and any limits on
 +    options.
 +-   If you set up any organisational structures, agree clear terms of
 +    reference and powers.
 +
 +### Possible problems
 +
 +\
 + *You don't have the time*.\
 + ​Consider whether stance 2 - consulting people - would be more
 +appropriate.\
 +\
 + *You are not sure if your colleagues will back up any decisions*.\
 + ​Involve them in the process. Run internal workshops before involving
 +others.\
 +\
 + ​*People aren't interested in joining in*.\
 + Spend more time on preliminary networking - basically talking to people
 +before holding any meetings. Run sessions hosted by existing
 +organisations as well as open sessions.\
 +\
 + *The techniques look too complicated*.\
 + Try some of the easier ones with a small group that you know. Bring in
 +an external trainer or facilitator.
 +
 +### Checklist
 +
 +\
 + ​Before taking up a deciding-together stance consider:
 +
 +-   Are you prepared to accept other people'​s ideas? What are the
 +    boundaries?
 +-   Are you clear who it is appropriate to involve?
 +-   Are you clear about what you want to achieve, and the boundaries to
 +    any ideas you will accept to get there?
 +-   Do you have the skills to use joint decision-making methods?
 +-   Do you have the authority to follow through with solutions which are
 +    decided with others?
 +-   Have you involved colleagues who need to be part of the solution?
 +
 +##### Top of [Where do you stand?​](main1#​RTFToC16)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Stance 4: Acting together
 +-------------------------
 +
 +##### [Where do you stand?​](main1#​RTFToC16) | [Information](main1#​anchor614917) | [Consultation](main1#​RTFToC19) | [Deciding](main1#​RTFToC20) | [Acting](main1#​RTFToC21) | [Supporting](main1#​RTFToC22)
 +
 +\
 +
 +Acting together may involve short-term collaboration or forming more
 +permanent partnerships with other interests.
 +
 +### Basics
 +
 +-   ​Acting together in partnership involves both deciding together and
 +    then acting together.
 +-   This means having a common language, a shared vision of what you
 +    want, and the means to carry it out.
 +-   ​Partners need to trust each other as well as agree on what they want
 +    to do.
 +-   ​Effective partnerships take a long time to develop - shot gun
 +    marriages are unlikely to work.
 +-   Each partner needs to feel they have an appropriate stake in the
 +    partnership and a fair say in what happens.
 +
 +### Where appropriate
 +
 +\
 + ​Acting together may be appropriate when:
 +
 +-   One party cannot achieve what they want on their own.
 +-   The various interests involved all get some extra benefit from
 +    acting together.
 +-   There is commitment to the time and effort needed to develop a
 +    partnership.
 +
 +Acting together is not likely to be appropriate when the following apply
 +(alternative stances in brackets):
 +
 +-   One party holds all the power and resources and uses this to impose
 +    its own solutions (1 or 2).
 +-   The commitment to partnership is only skin deep (1 or 2).
 +-   ​People want to have a say in making decisions, but not a long term
 +    stake in carrying out solutions (3).
 +
 +### Methods
 +
 +\
 + ​Consider the following methods from the [A-Z:​](AZpartic)
 +
 +-   ​Information giving methods to start the process.
 +-   ​Methods for deciding together to create a shared vision.
 +-   Team building exercises.
 +-   ​Design exercises.
 +-   ​Business planning exercises.
 +-   ​Interim structures like working parties and steering groups as a
 +    focus for decision making and accountability.
 +-   ​Longer-term structures through which you can work together.
 +
 +### Guidelines
 +
 +\
 + As for Deciding together, plus...
 +
 +-   Spend time getting to know and trust each other.
 +-   Plan for the long-term sustainability of any organisational
 +    structure that is needed to implement and maintain schemes.
 +-   Avoid staffing partnership organisations with people who are
 +    accountable to only one of the partners.
 +-   ​Develop a common language, shared vision and corporate
 +    accountability.
 +
 +### Possible problems
 +
 +\
 + ​*Early discussion focuses on constitutions*.\
 + The final structure should come last - after you have decided what you
 +are going to do, how to get the resources, what skills you need, and how
 +power and responsibility will be shared. Set up interim structures like
 +a steering group with clear terms of reference.\
 +\
 + ​*Conflicts arise in steering group meetings*.\
 + Spend more time in workshop sessions and informal meetings to develop a
 +shared vision and mutual understanding.\
 +\
 + *Some interests feel excluded*.\
 + ​Clarify who the stakeholders are, and what their legitimate interests
 +are. Again, run workshops rather than committees. Use an independent
 +facilitator.
 +
 +### Checklist
 +
 +\
 + ​Before taking up a '​acting together ' stance consider:
 +
 +-   Are you clear about what you want to achieve, and how flexible you
 +    are in pursuing that vision?
 +-   Have you identified potential partners?
 +-   Do you have any evidence that they share a similar vision, and are
 +    interested in a partnership with you to achieve it?
 +-   Do they trust you?
 +-   Do you have the time and commitment necessary to form a partnership?​
 +-   Are you prepared to share power?
 +
 +##### Top of [Where do you stand?​](main1#​RTFToC16)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Stance 5: Supporting local initiatives
 +--------------------------------------
 +
 +##### [Where do you stand?​](main1#​RTFToC16) | [Information](main1#​anchor614917) | [Consultation](main1#​RTFToC19) | [Deciding](main1#​RTFToC20) | [Acting](main1#​RTFToC21) | [Supporting](main1#​RTFToC22)
 +
 +\
 +
 +Supporting independent community-based initiatives means helping others
 +develop and carry out their own plans. Resource-holders who promote this
 +stance may, of course, put limits on what they will support.
 +
 +### Basics
 +
 +-   This is the most '​empowering'​ stance -provided people want to do
 +    things for themselves. They may, quite properly, choose a lower
 +    level of participation.
 +-   ​Carrying through the stance may involve people in setting up new
 +    forms of organisations to handle funds and carry out projects or
 +    programmes.
 +-   The process has to be owned by, and move at the pace of, those who
 +    are going to run the initiative - although funders and others may
 +    set deadlines.
 +
 +### Where appropriate
 +
 +\
 + This stance may be appropriate:​
 +
 +-   Where there is a commitment to empower individuals or groups within
 +    the community.
 +-   Where people are interested in starting and running an initiative .
 +
 +It is not likely to be appropriate when the following apply (alternative
 +stances in brackets):
 +
 +-   ​Community initiatives are seen as 'a good thing' in the abstract and
 +    pushed on people from the top down. (1,2,3).
 +-   Where there is no commitment to provide training and support.
 +-   Where there aren't the resources to maintain initiatives in the
 +    longer-term.
 +-   Where time is very short.
 +
 +### Methods
 +
 +\
 + ​Consider the following methods from the [A-Z:​](AZpartic)
 +
 +-   An offer of grants, advice and support - perhaps conditional on some
 +    commitment being made by the other interests involved.
 +-   ​Workshops for helping community groups create a shared vision and
 +    plan their action.
 +-   Team building exercises.
 +-   ​Commitment planning.
 +-   ​Business planning exercises.
 +-   ​Workshops on design, fund-raising and publicity.
 +-   ​Visits to similar projects.
 +-   ​Interim structures like working parties and steering groups as a
 +    focus for decision making and accountability.
 +-   ​Longer-term structures controlled by community interests.
 +-   ​Development trusts.
 +
 +### Guidelines
 +
 +-   Be clear about your role and whether produces any conflict between,
 +    for example, controlling resources and helping community interests
 +    develop their own ideas and organisation.
 +-   If you are controlling resources make sure you have agreement from
 +    your colleagues and can deliver what you promise before you start.
 +-   If you are acting as a facilitator or trainer make sure the
 +    resource-holders are involved in the process. If possible run
 +    internal workshops with them.
 +-   Be realistic about the time the process will take.
 +
 +### Possible problems
 +
 +\
 + ​*Community interests find it difficult to get organised.*\
 + ​Provide support and, if necessary training. Arrange visits to similar
 +projects elsewhere. Treat people development as seriously as project
 +development.\
 +\
 + *The steering group or other body cannot make decisions.*\
 + ​Organise workshop sessions outside formal committees.\
 +\
 + ​*Little happens between meetings.*\
 + End each meeting with an action planning session. If funds are
 +available appoint a development worker. Keep in contact through a
 +regularly produced newsletter.\
 +\
 + ​*Community interests become committed to action, but resource-holders
 +can't deliver.*\
 + Run internal sessions to gain commitment within the supporting
 +organisations. Use the media.
 +
 +### \
 + ​Checklist
 +
 +Before taking up a 'we will support community initiatives'​ stance
 +consider:
 +
 +-   Do you understand the different interests in the community and their
 +    needs?
 +-   Have you contacted existing community and voluntary sector
 +    organisations?​
 +-   Will your colleagues support the stance?
 +-   Do you have skills and resources to offer?
 +-   Are you clear about the role you are playing?
 +
 +##### Top of [Where do you stand?​](main1#​RTFToC16)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +##### | [Contents](main1#​anchor426596) | [Key ideas](main1#​RTFToC1) | [Easy](main1#​RTFToC2) | [Frame](main1#​RTFToC13) | [Signs](main1#​RTFToC29) | [Guides](main1#​RTFToC35) | [How to](main1#​RTFToC36) | [Ref](main1) | [A-D](AZpartic) | [E-K](EK) | [L-R](LR) | [S-Z](SZ) |
 +
 +It takes time
 +=============
 +
 +Often participation is treated as a limited set of events - a survey, an
 +exhibition, one or two meetings. However, if participation is to be more
 +than superficial consultation it must be treated as a process which
 +takes some time. This section deals with the main phases of
 +participation,​ and stresses that success depends on careful preparation.
 +
 +The participation process
 +-------------------------
 +
 +The Framework section suggested treating participation as a process
 +which has four main phases:
 +
 +-   ​[Initiation](main1#​anchor965027)
 +-   ​[Preparation](main1#​anchor965914)
 +-   ​[Participation](main1#​anchor973181)
 +-   ​[Continuation](main1#​anchor977346)
 +
 +(Thanks to Allen Hickling for suggesting these phases during a workshop
 +in Glasgow in1993).\
 +\
 + Of course, in reality life is never that tidy, and we find that we are
 +pitched into trying to do things without enough planning.\
 +\
 + Often it is difficult to see what to do before trying something out,
 +and reflecting on what happened. It may only be then that we find out
 +what the real problem is.\
 +\
 + This cycle goes on throughout any process to carry out a project or
 +programme. Participation is no different.\
 +\
 + ​Because participation doesn'​t run on predetermined tracks it isn't
 +possible to set out a step by step guide - every situation will be
 +different. However there are some key issues which keep cropping up, and
 +some are more important in particular phases. The questions and
 +checklists in this section all relate back to the main question set in
 +the [Signposts from theory to practice](main1#​RTFToC29) section.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Initiation
 +
 +##### | [It takes time](main1#​RTFToC23) | [Initiation](main1#​anchor965027) | [Preparation](main1#​anchor965914) | [Participation](main1#​anchor973181) | [Continuation](main1#​anchor977346) |
 +
 +\
 +
 +The process of participation may be triggered in many ways:
 +
 +-   A campaign of protest may be turned into a more collaborative
 +    programme of action.
 +-   An authority may promote a project.
 +-   ​Government may announce funding is available for community-based
 +    projects.
 +
 +Often situations will be messy and unclear, with different people and
 +groups having different views of what is going on. In order to move into
 +a planned process of participation,​ it is important to start asking some
 +key questions. These will recur in different forms throughout.
 +
 +### An outline agenda
 +
 +1.  Who is going to champion the process?
 +2.  Who pays? Who administers?​ Who convenes ?
 +3.  What are you trying to achieve through participation?​
 +4.  Who are the key interests in the community?
 +5.  Who are the key interests within any organisation promoting
 +    participation,​ and what are their attitudes?
 +6.  What level of participation is likely to be appropriate and
 +    acceptable?
 +7.  How will you know when you have succeeded?
 +
 +For guidance see the section **Guidelines on** *[How
 +to..](main1#​RTFToC36)*,​ and **[A-Z](AZpartic)** entries on *Aims
 +and objectives, Confidence, Levels of participation,​ Stakeholders,​
 +SWOT*.
 +
 +##### Top of [It takes time](main1#​RTFToC23)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Preparation
 +
 +##### | [It takes time](main1#​RTFToC23) | [Initiation](main1#​anchor965027) | [Preparation](main1#​anchor965914) | [Participation](main1#​anchor973181) | [Continuation](main1#​anchor977346) |
 +
 +\
 +
 +As these key issues become clearer, it is important to prepare on three
 +fronts:
 +
 +-   ​Initial spadework with whoever is promoting the process.
 +-   ​Agreeing the approach with key interests.
 +-   ​Developing a strategy.
 +
 +Most experienced facilitators and trainers agree that 80% of successful
 +participation lies in preparation - so don't skimp on it .
 +
 +### Spadework with the promoter
 +
 +\
 + In my experience the toughest problems in participation processes do
 +not stem from apathy, ignorance or lack of skills among residents or
 +other community interests. Given time and effort these can be worked
 +through.\
 +\
 + The most intractable problems arise because organisations promoting
 +participation aren't clear about what they want to achieve, are fearful
 +of sharing control, and seldom speak with one voice.\
 +\
 + ​Unless these issues are tackled at the outset they are likely to lead
 +to frustration,​ conflict and disillusion further down the line.\
 +\
 + The key issue is, what does the promoting organisation want from the
 +participation process? The most common goals are:
 +
 +-   ​Improving the quality of the outcome - the project or programme.
 +-   ​Developing the capabilities of the participants.
 +-   ​Building working relationships of benefit for the future.
 +-   ​Increasing ownership and the acceptability of the outcome.
 +
 +In preparing a participation process it is important to consider the mix
 +of these desired goals, and whether they are they realistic. In
 +particular, is there the internal commitment within the organisation to
 +bring them about? A group of experienced practitioners who discussed
 +these issues at the Gorbals workshop in November 1993, developed the
 +following checklist.
 +
 +### The internal agenda
 +
 +-   What does the organisation want to achieve from the participation
 +    process?
 +-   What are the boundaries of the task? What is fixed, and what is
 +    still open?
 +-   What level of participation is appropriate with the different
 +    outside interests?
 +-   Can the organisation respond to the outcomes of the process or are
 +    they intending to manipulate the participants towards pre-determined
 +    outcomes?
 +-   What is the \`real'​ agenda? Are there any hidden agendas?
 +-   What is the history of the issues, and what are the positions of the
 +    various parties?
 +-   Who owns the process within the organisation?​ Is there more than one
 +    owner and if so how will this be managed?
 +-   Are the senior officers and politicians prepared to make a public
 +    commitment and to be accessible to the participants?​
 +-   Who is involved internally? Have they got their internal act
 +    together? Are they really committed to the process? Will they stick
 +    at it when the going gets tough?
 +-   What resources are available? How much time is there?
 +-   How does this measure up to the support or involvement expected by
 +    community interests?
 +
 +If you are acting as the manager of the participation process it is
 +important that the internal \`client'​ understands,​ agrees and values
 +your role.\
 +\
 + In order to achieve this understanding it is a good idea to apply
 +participation techniques to the internal process with the client After
 +this experience they are more likely to understand the techniques you
 +use and support you when you apply them externally.
 +
 +#### Understanding key interests
 +
 +\
 + ​Before starting the formal processes of producing leaflets, calling
 +meetings or running workshops it is important to understand who's who
 +and what outcomes they may be looking for. Here's a checklist of some of
 +the early tasks and issues:
 +
 +-   ​Consider the potential obstacles to participation,​ for example:
 +    rigid views, authoritarian cultures, grudges and antagonisms,​
 +    passive and hard-to-reach interest groups, NlMBYs (Not in My Back
 +    Yard), professionals and technicians with poor communication skills,
 +    groups defending perceived power and status, or lacking the
 +    confidence, skills, or knowledge to participate. How will these be
 +    managed?
 +-   Meet the key agencies and lobbies. Get out and network formally and
 +    informally. Open new lines of communication. Meet one-to-one when
 +    possible to encourage candid responses.
 +-   There are four main groups of participants:​ politicians;​ decision
 +    makers and resource holders; activists; and ordinary people. How
 +    will you get beyond the (often self-appointed) activists? How will
 +    you pro-actively involve hard-to-reach groups?
 +-   Not everyone has an equal stake: build in different levels of
 +    involvement for different levels of commitment. Not everyone needs
 +    to be involved in every issue at every level and at every stage.
 +-   Help the parties decide how their representatives will relate to
 +    their constituencies.
 +-   ​Research the availability of additional resources. Bring potential
 +    funders into the process.
 +-   Get back to the client and gain assent to the process design.
 +
 +### Agreeing the approach - a strategy
 +
 +\
 + After discussions with the internal client and external interests, you
 +should be able to develop a strategy for the participation process. The
 +precise nature of the strategy will, of course, depend upon
 +circumstances and the level of participation sought with different
 +interests. These issues are dealt with in more detail in the \`How
 +to...' section. Here are some of the main points to cover:
 +
 +#### Strategy checklist
 +
 +\
 + As far as possible gain agreement of all parties to the following:
 +
 +-   The aims of the process and how progress will be evaluated.
 +-   The \`feel'​ of the process: the style and tone.
 +-   The groupings, forums and decision cycles to be employed.
 +-   ​Precisely what authority is being delegated to whom.
 +-   The appropriate approaches and techniques, taking into account time
 +    scale, objectives, resources, openness of information sharing etc.
 +-   The ground-rules:​ how are we going to deal with each other?
 +-   The resources available and any conditions attached.
 +-   The technical and administrative services available.
 +-   The mechanisms for recording and disseminating information.
 +-   The level of support and resources to be made available.
 +
 +Some of these issues may have to evolve with the process: it may not be
 +possible to agree everything at the start. If it seems worth the risk,
 +you may just have to get some action off the ground and work out the
 +details as you go along. You should also:
 +
 +-   Bear in mind that people have limited patience and attention spans:
 +    how will you deal with long lead times?
 +-   Be sure everyone understands the constraints:​ what the process will
 +    **not** achieve for them. Unrealistic expectations can only lead to
 +    disillusionment.
 +-   Be realistic about what can be achieved with the time and resources
 +    available.
 +
 +See also items in the [A-Z](AZpartic) on *Action plans, Budgets for
 +participation,​ Communication,​ Workshops.*
 +
 +##### Top of [It takes time](main1#​RTFToC23)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Participation
 +
 +##### | [It takes time](main1#​RTFToC23) | [Initiation](main1#​anchor965027) | [Preparation](main1#​anchor965914) | [Participation](main1#​anchor973181) | [Continuation](main1#​anchor977346) |
 +
 +\
 +
 +\
 + ​During this phase you will be running events, producing printed
 +materials and using a range of methods. The Guidelines on [How
 +to..](main1#​RTFToC36). section and [A-Z](AZpartic) items provide
 +detailed guidance.\
 +\
 + The following are some of tips which emerged from brainstorming
 +sessions with experienced practitioners about this phase of the process:
 +
 +-   ​Don'​t underestimate people. Give them tools to manage complexity
 +    don't, shield them from it.
 +-   ​Divide the issues into bite-sized chunks.
 +-   Start with people'​s own concerns and the issues relevant to them.
 +    Don't superimpose your own ideas and solutions at the outset.
 +-   Help people widen their perceptions of the choices available and to
 +    clarify the implications of each option.
 +-   Build in visible early successes to develop the confidence of
 +    participants. \`Staircase'​ skills, trust and commitment to the
 +    process: offer a progressive range of levels of involvement and help
 +    people to move up the ladder.
 +-   ​Direct empowerment training for participants may not be
 +    appreciated - it may be better to develop skills more organically as
 +    part of the process.
 +-   If at all possible, avoid going for a comprehensive irreversible
 +    solution. Set up an iterative learning process, with small, quick,
 +    reversible pilots and experiments.
 +-   ​Continuously review and widen membership. As new interests groups
 +    are discovered how will they be integrated into the process?
 +-   Help people to build their understanding of complex and remote
 +    decision processes which are outside the delegated powers of the
 +    participation process but which are affecting the outcomes.
 +-   ​Nurture new networks and alliances.
 +-   Plans must be meaningful and lead to action.
 +-   ​Manage the link between the private ability of the various interest
 +    groups to deliver on their commitments and the public accountability
 +    and control of the implementation.
 +-   Build in opportunities for reflection and appraisal.
 +-   Make sure people are having fun!
 +
 +##### Top of [It takes time](main1#​RTFToC23)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Continuation - keeping going
 +
 +##### | [It takes time](main1#​RTFToC23) | [Initiation](main1#​anchor965027) | [Preparation](main1#​anchor965914) | [Participation](main1#​anchor973181) | [Continuation](main1#​anchor977346) |
 +
 +\
 +
 +The final phase in a participation process. By this time it should be
 +clear how any agreed proposals are going to be taken forward. How this
 +is done will depend very much on the level of participation.\
 +\
 + At one level - of consultation - you may have worked through some
 +prepared options with different interests and then agreed to take the
 +results away for evaluation and implementation.\
 +\
 + At another level - working together - you may be setting up new
 +partnership organisations.
 +
 +### Checklist
 +
 +-   Did we achieve what we set out to do in the process?
 +-   Were the key interests happy with the level of involvement?​
 +-   Have we reported back to people on the outcomes?
 +-   Are responsibilities clear for carrying projects forward?
 +-   Are there major lessons we can learn for the next time?
 +
 +##### Top of [It takes time](main1#​RTFToC23)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Postscript Groups and organisations,​ like relationships,​ go through
 +recognisable stages. The early stages have been described as:
 +
 +-   ​**Forming:​** coming together as a group, getting to know each other,
 +    deciding what the group'​s concerns and emphases should be.
 +-   ​**Storming:​** coming to terms with differences within the group.
 +-   ​**Norming:​** agreeing objectives, priorities, procedures, ways of
 +    relating to each other.
 +-   ​**Performing:​** getting on with the work, without having to spend a
 +    lot of time and energy deciding what needs doing and how it should
 +    be done.
 +
 +All of this is difficult enough in a group which meets frequently, or in
 +a formal organisation. It should be no surprise that it is even more
 +complex in a participation process when so many different interests have
 +to find a common vision. Don't be discouraged!
 +
 +##### \
 + Top of [It takes time](main1#​RTFToC23)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Signposts from theory to practice
 +=================================
 +
 +##### [Contents](main1#​anchor426596) | [Key ideas](main1#​RTFToC1) | [Easy](main1#​RTFToC2) | [Frame](main1#​RTFToC13) | [Signs](main1#​RTFToC29) | [Guides](main1#​RTFToC35) | [How to](main1#​RTFToC36) | [Ref](main1) | [A-D](AZpartic) | [E-K](EK) | [L-R](LR) | [S-Z](SZ) |
 +
 +This section sets out how I have designed some of the signposting in
 +this Guide - the cross-references from problems to participation
 +techniques. It is rather theoretical,​ and if you wish you can skip it
 +and move to the next sections.
 +
 +### The nature of signposting
 +
 +The original idea of this guide was to help practitioners who subscribe
 +to the \`why' of participation find their way to the \`how'​. In practice
 +signposting is complex for several reasons:
 +
 +-   Every situation is unique.
 +-   ​Participation methods are not just quick-fix tools for success -
 +    they often require skill and experience in their application.
 +-   The methods are not always easy to find - there are not many
 +    participation \`toolkits'​.
 +
 +\
 + For these reasons, this section - and the complementary \`Guidelines on
 +[How to..](main1#​RTFToC36) section - cannot provide a step by step
 +manual. Instead I have tried to offer a number of ways of looking at the
 +route from participation problems to solutions, with some pointers to
 +topics and methods which are detailed in the [A-Z](AZpartic) section.
 +
 +The starting point - problems
 +-----------------------------
 +
 +\
 + ​Whatever level of participation you are offering, and whatever phase
 +you are in, there will be problems.
 +
 +-   ​People will not read your leaflets or come to meetings.
 +-   ​Colleagues will fail to deliver on their promises.
 +-   ​Different interest groups will have conflicting aims.
 +-   ​Deadlines will be missed.
 +-   You may end up as the scapegoat for everyone'​s difficulties.
 +
 +So what do you do when the going gets tough? Reach for a solution - a
 +participation tool or method. You may go and talk to people, produce
 +another piece of paper, run a workshop, set up a committee, or perhaps
 +give someone else the job. The later section on **Problems** suggests
 +which methods may be most appropriate in common situations. But what do
 +we mean by participation methods?
 +
 +The end point - participation methods
 +-------------------------------------
 +
 +The methods for participation included in the guide fall broadly under
 +three headings - techniques, structures and longer-term programmes.
 +
 +### Techniques
 +
 +\
 + ​Techniques are frequently used short-term interventions employed by
 +consultants and trainers. They range from communication materials and
 +simple workshop sessions through to more complex methods of
 +decision-making,​ like Strategic Choice. They can be very useful ways of
 +concentrating efforts to involve people, but should not be seen as
 +'quick fixes'​. Participation takes time, and techniques will usually
 +need to be part of a long-term programme, or related to a structure -
 +see below.
 +
 +### Structures
 +
 +\
 + Both interim and longer-term organisational structures are used in
 +participation processes. They range from working parties and advisory
 +committees to organisations like development trusts, and community-based
 +coops. Local councils and similar organisations often favour structures
 +because they mirror or can be linked to their committee systems and the
 +procedures which go with them. They can stand in the way of real
 +participation for those involved unless their purpose is clear, the
 +balance of control or influence is agreed, and their proceedings are
 +enlivened by workshop techniques.
 +
 +### Longer-term programmes
 +
 +\
 + These are processes for participation,​ planned over a period of time,
 +which may involve staff devoted partly or wholly to the programme as
 +well as the use of techniques and structures.
 +
 +The bridge - key issues
 +-----------------------
 +
 +The problems in participation processes seem to relate to about 15
 +underlying issues. If can spot the issue, by asking the right questions,
 +you may be able to find a participation method to use. I have listed
 +what I think are the key issues below, with some signposts to methods.\
 +\
 + ​![](image18.gif)\
 +\
 + **1 Taking stock: Situation assessment**
 +
 +-   What else is happening which might affect us?
 +-   Who are the key interests?
 +-   What are the barriers to action?
 +-   Who holds the power, and are they prepared to share it?
 +
 +See *CATWOE, Community profiling, Stakeholders,​ Surveys, SWOT in the
 +[A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **2 Taking stock: Self assessment**
 +
 +-   What do we feel able to do?
 +-   How confident are we?
 +
 +See *Capacity-building,​ Skills audit, SWOT in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **3 Clarifying purpose, values** **and vision**
 +
 +-   What are we trying to achieve?
 +-   What will it seem like if we succeed?
 +
 +See *Aims and objectives, Mission, Nominal Group Technique, Outcomes,
 +Purpose, Vision in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **4 Roles**
 +
 +-   What part am I and others playing in the process?
 +-   What responsibilities do we each have?
 +
 +See *Accountability,​ Recruitment,​ Roles in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 + **\
 + 5 Increasing commitment**
 +
 +-   How can we get people to play an active part?
 +-   Why are people not interested?
 +-   Are my colleagues with me?
 +
 +See *Apathy, Commitment, Ownership in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **6 Communication** Are we talking the same language?
 +
 +-   Are we talking the same language
 +-   Do we understand each other?
 +
 +See *Communication,​ Meetings, Presentations n the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **7 Developing criteria**
 +
 +-   What do we think is most important?
 +-   Do we agree on priorities and values?
 +-   How do we use this to choose between different options?
 +
 +See *Criteria, Evaluation, Values in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **8 Negotiation**
 +
 +-   How can we reach agreement on what to do and how to do it?
 +
 +See *Negotiation,​ Outcomes in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **9 Getting resources**
 +
 +-   What money, advice and other resources will we need?
 +
 +See *Fundraising,​ Resources in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **10 Developing skills/​capacities**
 +
 +-   How will we develop the ability to work with others and achieve what
 +    we want?
 +
 +See *Capacity-building,​ Skills audit in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **11 Generating options**
 +
 +-   How can we think creatively to produce a number of different
 +    possible options for solutions?
 +
 +See *Brainstorming,​ Creative thinking, Ideas, Options, Nominal Group
 +Technique in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **12 Making decisions**
 +
 +-   How can we choose between the different options and work out what to
 +    do next?
 +
 +See *Action plans, Cost/​Benefit Analysis, Strategic choice in the
 +[A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **13 Developing structure**
 +
 +-   What type of organisation may we need - either in the short term to
 +    make decisions, or in the longer-term to carry out plans?
 +
 +See *Business planning, Competence, Constitutions,​ Structures in the
 +[A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **14 Managing structure**
 +
 +-   How will we run any organisation?​
 +-   What skills and resources will we need?
 +
 +\
 + See *Competence,​ Governance, Management in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **15 Evaluating progress**
 +
 +-   How will we judge whether we are succeeding or failing
 +
 +See *Criteria*, *Evaluation in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +A community participation questions set
 +=======================================
 +
 +##### | [Contents](main1#​anchor426596) | [Key ideas](main1#​RTFToC1) | [Easy](main1#​RTFToC2) | [Frame](main1#​RTFToC13) | [Signs](main1#​RTFToC29) | [Guides](main1#​RTFToC35) | [How to](main1#​RTFToC36) | [Ref](main1) | [A-D](AZpartic) | [E-K](EK) | [L-R](LR) | [S-Z](SZ) |
 +
 +To ensure a broad. coherent approach to community participation,​
 +consider the following:
 +
 +### 1 Commitment
 +
 +\
 + Has the nature and extent of commitment to participation. amongst all
 +those involved, been made clear at the outset? Have major differences
 +been addressed?
 +
 +### 2 Education for participation
 +
 +\
 + Has some opportunity been provided to ensure some positive \`induction'​
 +to the participation process for local people, professionals,​ elected
 +members and others?
 +
 +### 3 Applicability
 +
 +\
 + Has it been decided whether, and in what general ways, a participative
 +approach is applicable to all types of specific project or continuing
 +initiative?
 +
 +### 4 Initiation
 +
 +\
 + Has something been done to ensure that the pattern and detail of
 +participation activity is not determined totally by whoever initiates
 +it? Is there a shared feeling of \`ownership'?​
 +
 +### 5 Scope
 +
 +\
 + ​Within a general principle of attempting to achieve the fullest
 +possible involvement on any project, are all parties clear about, and do
 +they accept, the level of participation on offer?
 +
 +### 6 Delivering agreed scope
 +
 +\
 + Are those in positions of power to influence the end outcome (elected
 +members, officers, developers, funders) able to deliver the agreed level
 +of involvement?​ (If it cannot be delivered, it should not be offered.)
 +
 +### 7 All Stages
 +
 +\
 + Is participation being started as early as possible in the planning and
 +development process, and how can you make it something which should go
 +right through from initiation to completion (and even into later
 +community management)?​
 +
 +### 8 Defining Overall Community
 +
 +\
 + Have the definitions of \`area'​ and \`overall community',​ used to
 +determine who has an opportunity to be involved, been negotiated with
 +all parties. and how will they be redefined if necessary as work
 +proceeds?
 +
 +### 9 Engaging Communities
 +
 +\
 + Have the ground rules for how the many sub-communities within the area
 +are defined, located and accessed been considered at the outset and
 +agreed with all parties, and how will it be enlarged and extended as
 +work proceeds?
 +
 +### 10 Approach
 +
 +\
 + Have those managing the involvement process, along with other parties,
 +agreed an overall, coherent approach which ensures that all relevant
 +issues are addressed and which considers the participation process over
 +time?
 +
 +### 11 Relevant Methods
 +
 +\
 + Have the methods to be used been carefully chosen to relate closely to
 +the scope of the work, the definitions of communities used, the stage of
 +the involvement and the available skills and resources?
 +
 +### 12 Range of methods
 +
 +\
 + In general, is a range of methods to be used in order to increase the
 +chances of engaging the largest number of people?
 +
 +### 13 Resources
 +
 +\
 + Have all resources available for the work been assessed, considered and
 +valued - including \`work equity'​ by community groups and others? Is
 +there agreement about how those resources are best disposed throughout
 +the work?
 +
 +### 14 Management
 +
 +\
 + ​Through what means will those managing the participation process ensure
 +that the manner in which work is handled creates a sense of trust within
 +the community about the fairness and neutrality of the process?
 +
 +### 15 Resolution
 +
 +\
 + Has there been consideration at an early stage of the manner in which
 +the many views and ideas emerging from the participation process are
 +assembled, weighted and used in relation to reaching any decisions? In
 +particular, who will do this?
 +
 +### 16 Going forward
 +
 +\
 + Has thought been given to how practice should be evaluated in
 +retrospect and time given, for all parties, to consider how best to take
 +forward the lessons learned into subsequent involvement activity?\
 +\
 + ..... and finally:
 +
 +### 17 Context
 +
 +\
 + What general support is there from your organisation,​ is the time right
 +to be doing this, are there any specific '​windows of opportunity'​ you
 +can use to get things going? Where are the enemies and the barriers
 +likely to come? Can you influence any of these?\
 +\
 + This question set was supplied by consultants BDOR.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Guidelines
 +==========
 +
 +##### [Contents](main1#​anchor426596) | [Key ideas](main1#​RTFToC1) | [Easy](main1#​RTFToC2) | [Frame](main1#​RTFToC13) | [Signs](main1#​RTFToC29) | [Guides](main1#​RTFToC35) | [How to](main1#​RTFToC36) | [Ref](main1) | [A-D](AZpartic) | [E-K](EK) | [L-R](LR) | [S-Z](SZ) |
 +
 +It is tempting to say that every situation is so different that general
 +guidelines on participation are misleading - but that isn't much comfort
 +to anyone trying to work out how to start. So here are ten principles
 +intended to get you thinking, rather than provide firm rules. Cross
 +references are provided to other **main sections** and *items* in the
 +A-Z, and further guidelines on the main tasks are given later. This
 +section - as others - is written for someone managing a participation
 +process.\
 +\
 + **1** Ask yourself what you wish to achieve from the participation
 +process, and what you want to help others achieve. What is the purpose?\
 +\
 + *See [A framework for participation](main1#​RTFToC13),​ Beneficiaries,​
 +Purpose in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **2** Identify the different interests within a community that you wish
 +to involve, and put yourself in their shoes.\
 +\
 + *See Community, Stakeholders in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **3** Clarify your own role and whether you are wearing too many hats -
 +for example, communicator of information,​ facilitator of ideas,
 +controller of resources.\
 +\
 + *See Accountability,​ Role of the Practitioner in the
 +[A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **4** Consider what balance to strike between keeping control and
 +gaining other people'​s commitment, and what levels of participation this
 +suggests for different interests.\
 +\
 + *See [Where do you stand?​](main1#​RTFToC16)*\
 +\
 + **5** Invest as much effort in preparation as participation with
 +outside interests.\
 +\
 + *See [Preparation](main1) in [It takes time](main1#​RTFToC23)*\
 +\
 + **6** Run internal participation processes to make sure your own
 +organisation is committed and can deliver.\
 +\
 + *See [Preparation](main1) in [It takes time](main1#​RTFToC23)*\
 +\
 + **7** Be open and honest about what you are offering or seeking, and
 +communicate in the language of those you are aiming to involve .\
 +\
 + *See Communication,​ Trust in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + **8** Make contact informally with key interests before running any
 +formal meetings.\
 +\
 + *See [Preparation](main1) in [It takes time](main1#​RTFToC23),​
 +Networking in the [A-Z](AZpartic)\
 +\
 +* **9** Build on existing organisations and networks - but don't use
 +them as the only channel of communication and involvement.\
 +\
 + See *Networking,​ Voluntary sector in the [A-Z](AZpartic)*\
 +\
 + ​**10** Consider the time and resources you will need.\
 +\
 + *See [It takes time\
 +\
 +](main1#​RTFToC23)*
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +How to..
 +========
 +
 +##### [Contents](main1#​anchor426596) | [Key ideas](main1#​RTFToC1) | [Easy](main1#​RTFToC2) | [Frame](main1#​RTFToC13) | [Signs](main1#​RTFToC29) | [Guides](main1#​RTFToC35) | [How to](main1#​RTFToC36) | [Ref](main1) | [A-D](AZpartic) | [E-K](EK) | [L-R](LR) | [S-Z](SZ) |
 +
 +This section takes the guidelines above and issues discussed in the more
 +theoretical sections and suggests how to tackle the main tasks likely to
 +crop up in a participation process. It does so by looking at the key
 +issues from a number of angles, providing checklists, and signposting
 +you on to more detail to other sections in the guide and items in the
 +A-Z section. However, it should be treated as guidance only - not a
 +step-by-step manual.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +...clarify why you want to involve others
 +-----------------------------------------
 +
 +Why is it necessary to involve other people? Is it for your benefit,
 +theirs, or both?\
 +\
 + **1** Consider what you are trying to achieve at the end of the day,
 +and why this may be best done with others. See *Benefits of
 +participation,​ Barriers to participation,​ Outcomes.\
 +\
 +* **2** List the key interests who will have to be involved, both within
 +your organisation and without. See *Stakeholder analysis.\
 +\
 +* **3** After following the steps below, try out your ideas informally
 +on a few people you know.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +...understand your role Some of the greatest problems arise because
 +those promoting or managing participation are wearing too many different
 +hats.\
 +\
 + **1** Consider the part you may be expected to play in a participation
 +process:
 +
 +-   ​Someone who controls resources?
 +-   A go-between?
 +-   A representative of an interest group?
 +-   Some who will initiate, plan or manage the process?
 +-   ​Someone using participation techniques - producing newsletters,​
 +    holding meetings, running workshops?
 +
 +**2** If you are trying to do more than one of these, could there be
 +conflicts? How will others see you? Can you split roles with someone
 +else?\
 +\
 + **3** See *Role of the practitioner* in the [A-Z](AZpartic) and
 +earlier sections on **Where do you stand?** and *It takes time* for more
 +detailed descriptions of what is involved in the process.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +...decide where you stand
 +-------------------------
 +
 +One of the most important early decision is on the appropriate level of
 +participation,​ or stance you will take.\
 +\
 + **1** Clarify why you want to involve others, and your possible role -
 +see early steps above.\
 +\
 + **2** Read the **Framework for participation** section, and consider
 +what level of participation is likely to be appropriate:​\
 +\
 + \* Information:​ telling people what you are going to do.\
 +\
 + \* Consultation:​ offering people choices between options you have
 +developed.\
 +\
 + \* Deciding together: allowing others to contribute ideas and options,
 +and deciding together.\
 +\
 + \* Acting together: putting your choices into practice in partnership.\
 +\
 + \* Supporting independent community initiatives - helping others carry
 +out their own plans.\
 +\
 + **3** Review who the key interests are, and what level of participation
 +will be appropriate for each. See *Stakeholders*.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +...prepare for participation
 +----------------------------
 +
 +Experienced trainers and facilitators reckon that 80 per cent of the
 +potential for success lies in preparing well before engaging with
 +individuals and groups.\
 +\
 + **1** See the Preparation section in ***It Takes time*.** Work through
 +the internal agenda within your group or organisation. For example:\
 +\
 + \* Are your colleagues agreed on what they wish to achieve, and the
 +level of participation?​\
 +\
 + \* Have you flushed out any hidden agendas?\
 +\
 + \* Will the organisation be able to deliver on any promises?\
 +\
 + **2** Make contact informally with key interests.\
 +\
 + ​Review the levels of participation different interests may seek.\
 +\
 + ​Consider the possible obstacles which may occur, and the support you
 +will need.\
 +\
 + **3** Begin to develop a strategy which covers:\
 +\
 + \* The main deadlines\
 +\
 + \* Resources needed\
 +\
 + \* Technical support available\
 +\
 + See the **Signposts from theory to practice** section, *Budgets for
 +participation,​ Timeline.*
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +...choose participation methods
 +-------------------------------
 +
 +The **Easy answers** section outlines what can occur if you don't think
 +through carefully what methods to use.\
 +\
 + **1** See the **Signposts** section for a theoretical discussion, and
 +pointers to topics and methods featured in the A-Z.\
 +\
 + **2** In choosing a method consider:\
 +\
 + \* Is it appropriate for the level of participation?​ For example,
 +powerful techniques like Planning for Real which give everyone a say are
 +not appropriate for consultation processes where you are really only
 +offering people limited choices.\
 +\
 + \* Do you have the necessary skills and resources? A slide show may be
 +more effective than a video.\
 +\
 + \* Can you follow through? There is no point doing a survey unless you
 +can handle the responses and use the information.\
 +\
 + \* Do you need help? An experienced trainer or facilitator may be
 +necessary for some of the more complex methods.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +...develop support within your organisation
 +-------------------------------------------
 +
 +Many participation processes fail because the organisations promoting
 +the process cannot deliver when others respond.\
 +\
 + **1** See the section on **Change in organisations,​** and **It takes
 +time.** After reviewing the issues there and above (in ...prepare for
 +participation):​\
 +\
 + **2** Use internally some of the techniques you plan to use
 +externally:​\
 +\
 + \* Produce communication materials in draft.\
 +\
 + \* Run workshop sessions.\
 +\
 + \* Encourage others within the organisation to take ownership of the
 +proposals, options or ideas and work them through informally with other
 +interests. That is the best way to gain internal commitment or discover
 +what problems may arise later.\
 +\
 + See *Commitment planning, Ownership.*
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +... and develop your skills as an enabler
 +-----------------------------------------
 +
 +Although many of the techniques suggested in this guide are relatively
 +simple, it takes some degree of confidence to run a workshop with
 +community interests for the first time or perhaps argue through with
 +colleagues the need for a long-term participation process. Here are a
 +few suggestions on how to develop your confidence and capability:​\
 +\
 + \* Contact anyone within your organisation,​ or locally, with
 +facilitation,​ training or general community development experience and
 +talk through your plans.\
 +\
 + \* Contact one of the organisations listed in this guide who offer
 +training and support.\
 +\
 + \* Find a low-risk opportunity to try running a workshop using some of
 +the simpler techniques.\
 +\
 + \* Or even better run a workshop jointly with an experienced
 +practitioner - perhaps contacted through one of the organisations
 +listed.
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +...choose an appropriate structure
 +----------------------------------
 +
 +Participation is not necessarily achieved just by setting up a forum,
 +working group, committee, steering group or other structure. On the
 +other hand, if you are planning or managing a participation process you
 +will need some point of accountability,​ and the key interests may need
 +to work together formally as well as creatively. In planning the
 +process:\
 +\
 + **1** Clarify to whom you are accountable at the outset.\
 +\
 + **2** If you are working at the \`acting together'​ level of
 +participation help key interests form a working group or steering group
 +when appropriate.\
 +\
 + **3** Review your role and accountability with that new group.\
 +\
 + See items on the structures mentioned, and *Accountability,​ Structures
 +for participation*,​ *Terms of reference.*
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Summary
 +-------
 +
 +Participation processes do not run on rails, and they cannot be set out
 +as a linear step-by-step process. Each of the items above may be seen as
 +a problem which has to be tackled, but not necessarily solved at one go.
 +Plan, act, review - or as they say in the States \`do it, fix it, try
 +it'.\
 +\
 + ​Bearing that in mind here is a summary of the main tasks.\
 +\
 + **The main tasks in summary\
 +\
 + 1** Clarify why the participation process is being started, who has the
 +final say, and what your brief is.\
 +\
 + See *Accountability,​ Aims and objectives, Mission.\
 +\
 +* **2** Identify key community interests, including voluntary and
 +community organisations.\
 +\
 + See *Community profiling, Networking, Stakeholder analysis.\
 +\
 +* **3** Consider the level of participation appropriate,​ make informal
 +contacts to identify local concerns, and whether your stance - the level
 +you are adopting - is likely to be acceptable.\
 +\
 + See *Level of participation,​ Networking.\
 +\
 +* **4** Run a workshop session(s) within your organisation to ensure key
 +people are clear about the purpose of the participation process, the
 +roles and responsibilities,​ and the answers to basic questions which
 +will be asked when you go public.\
 +\
 + See *Barriers to participation,​ **Changing in organisations,​**
 +Workshops\
 +\
 +* **5** Consider the stance (Inform, Consult etc.) you are taking in
 +more detail, and in the light of that decide on what methods you will
 +use.\
 +\
 + See *Levels of participation\
 +\
 +* **6** Review whether your organisation will be able to respond to the
 +feedback, and follow through on any decisions reached.\
 +\
 + See ***Changing in organisations\
 +\
 +* 7** Review your timescale, and prepare an action plan based on the
 +level of participation. See *Action planning*
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Reference
 +=========
 +
 +##### [Contents](main1#​anchor426596) | [Key ideas](main1#​RTFToC1) | [Easy](main1#​RTFToC2) | [Frame](main1#​RTFToC13) | [Signs](main1#​RTFToC29) | [Guides](main1#​RTFToC35) | [How to](main1#​RTFToC36) | [Ref](main1) | [A-D](AZpartic) | [E-K](EK) | [L-R](LR) | [S-Z](SZ) |
 +
 +Useful publications
 +-------------------
 +
 +[Useful organisations](main1#​anchor907640)\
 +\
 + In researching this guide I found few publications which deal
 +specifically with participation and partnership. Not surprisingly,​ books
 +of relevant techniques are fewer still.\
 +\
 + The references below are some of the main sources of information and
 +inspiration I found in developing theory and finding examples of
 +techniques. Please send me your own favourites for inclusion in a later
 +edition of the guide.\
 +\
 + ​Details of organisations mentioned can be found in the next section,
 +including some distributors.\
 +\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +101 ways to generate great ideas.\
 + ​Timothy R. V. Foster, Kogan Page,1991.\
 + A consultant lists 101 ways to understand problems, generate ideas in
 +groups, develop solutions and evaluate which to use.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Awareness through to action.\
 + ​Newcastle Architecture Workshop, 1992.\
 + A pack containing scores of techniques for achieving participation in
 +environmental projects and the design process. Useful for work in
 +schools, training for professionals and with community groups.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +A-Z of meetings.\
 + Sue Ward, Pluto Press, 1985.\
 + ​Reflects the author'​s experience in the trade union movement and Labour
 +Party, and is strong on the formalities of constitutions,​ rules, and
 +standing orders.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Building effective local partnerships.\
 + Local Government Management Board, 1993.\
 + ​Guidelines based on case studies of partnerships,​ aimed at both local
 +authorities and voluntary bodies with whom they may develop partnership
 +arrangements.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Change and how to help it happen.\
 + ​Community Education Training Unit, 1994.\
 + A comprehensive and practical guide to facilitation methods for
 +organisational change. The approach and methods can be adapted for
 +participation processes.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Citizen action: taking action in your community.\
 + Des Wilson with Leighton Andrews and Maurice Frankel, Longman, 1986.\
 + The nuts and bolts of organising a local campaign.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Citizen involvement:​ a practical guide for change.\
 + Peter Beresford and Suzy Croft, Macmillan, 1993.\
 + A guide to participation and empowerment which focuses on initiatives
 +in social work and social services. Plenty of insights from service
 +users as well as practitioners,​ and guidelines for agencies.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Community enterprise from the bottom up.\
 + ​Edited by Nick Love, Lincolnshire Wolds Publications,​ 1993.\
 + Case studies and advice on creating local community-based enterprises.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Community involvement in City Challenge.\
 + ​Richard MacFarlane, NCVO, 1993.\
 + A good practice guide based on case studies of City Challenge projects.
 +Provides insights into the problems of achieving participation against
 +tight timetables and Treasury funding procedures.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Community profiling: a guide to identifying local needs.\
 + Paul Burton, School for Advanced Urban Studies, 1993.\
 + ​Provides a 10-step practical guide to developing a community profile
 +which is defined as \`a social, environmental and economic description
 +of a given area which is used to inform local decision-making.'​\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Consensus-building.\
 + ​Andrew Floyer Acland, The Environment Council, 1992.\
 + ​Booklet on \`how to reach agreement by consent in multi-party,​
 +multi-issue situations.'​ Describes a five stage process: Assessment,
 +Initiation, Meetings, Decisions, Making the Solutions Work. Free - call
 +the Council.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Creating Development Trusts.\
 + Diane Warburton and David Wilcox, HMSO, 1988.\
 + Case studies of joint public, private, community organisations
 +concerned with area conservation and renewal. Also outlines the start up
 +process for a trust, and elements of good practice.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Creating involvement.\
 + ​Environment Trust Associates, Local Government Management Board, 1994.\
 + A handbook on participation techniques, covering some of the same
 +ground as this guide. Provides more detailed guidance on, for example,
 +workshops, surveys, and Planning for Real.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +The Local Government Government Management Board is also producing a
 +series of free papers on community participation and other issues
 +relating to Agenda 21 - the programme being developed by local
 +authorities following the 1992 Rio Earth Summit..\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Croner'​s Management of Voluntary Organisations.\
 + ​Croner Publications,​ 1989 plus quarterly updates.\
 + ​Substantial compendium of management advice, aimed at staffed voluntary
 +organisations.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Designing your own simulations.\
 + Ken Jones, Methuen, 1985.\
 + Aimed mainly at teachers, but the approach is more widely applicable.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Getting organised: a handbook for non-statutory organisations.\
 + ​Christine Holloway and Shirley Otto, Bedford Square Press, 1985.\
 + The authors write that: \`The purpose of this book is to help you bring
 +about changes which will improve the effectiveness of your
 +organisation.'​ It does this by raising key management issues and
 +providing checklists and exercises.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Getting to yes.\
 + Roger Fisher and William Ury, Hutchinson, 1981.\
 + A classic work on negotiation with applications spanning personal
 +relationships,​ work and international diplomacy. Key elements of the
 +method are: Separate the people from the problem; Focus on interests,
 +not positions; Invent options for mutual gain; Insist on objective
 +criteria. It deals with What if they are more powerful? What if they
 +won't play? What if they use dirty tricks?\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +How to make meetings work.\
 + ​Malcolm Peel, Kogan Page, 1988.\
 + ​Covers planning for meetings, how groups work, different roles, formal
 +procedures, legal issues, and conferences. Brief section on \`special
 +meetings'​ for brainstorming,​ negotiation,​ therapy, training, and a
 +section on conferences.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +How to solve your problems.\
 + ​Brenda Rogers, Sheldon Press, 1991.\
 + ​Counsellor and teacher deals with problems from the personal
 +perspective,​ using techniques also relevant to groups and organisations.
 +For example, chapters include Defining and clarifying the Problem;
 +Collecting information;​ Creative thinking; Generating more ideas; Making
 +decisions; Putting your decisions into action.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Influencing with integrity.\
 + Genie Z. Laborde, Syntony Publishing, 1983.\
 + Early application of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) by a US
 +communication consultant. Provides a theoretical basis for advice on how
 +to establish rapport with your audience, clarify the outcomes you are
 +seeking, read body language, interpret responses, and run meetings
 +effectively.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Introduction to neuro-linguistic programming.\
 + ​Joseph O'​Connor and John Seymour, Thorsons Publishing Group, 1990.\
 + A more detailed description of NLP, its psychological basis and use of
 +linguistic analysis. Deals with the underlying processes of
 +communication.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Just about managing?\
 + Sandy Adirondack, London Voluntary Service Council, 1992.\
 + ​Best-selling guide to effective management for voluntary organisations
 +and community groups. Covers all the main issues, with lots of
 +checklists.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Limbering up.\
 + Ann Holmes, Radical Improvements for Peripheral Estates, 1992.\
 + Study of community empowerment on housing estates, with a strong focus
 +on the issues of confidence, communication and capacity. Twenty of the
 +issues are analysed in detail, with accompanying exercises to tackle
 +problems.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Local authorities and community development:​ a strategic opportunity for
 +the 1990s.\
 + ​Association of Metropolitan Authorities,​ 1993.\
 + ​Recommendations on how local authorities can develop strategic plans
 +and practical action to secure greater community involvement in service
 +delivery. Prepared by a joint working party representing local
 +authorities and community organisations.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Making it happen: a user's guide to the Neighbourhood Action Packs.\
 + ​Neighbourhood Initiatives Foundation.\
 + A description of how to use three dimensional models and other back-up
 +materials to involve communities in decision-making. Written by Tony
 +Gibson who has pioneered Planning for Real. NIF has produced about 40
 +packs and publications guided by the philosophy that the people who live
 +and work in neighbourhoods are the real experts.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Managing yourself.\
 + Mike Pedler and Tom Boydell, Fontana, 1985.\
 + ​Written for \`the thinking manager'​ by consultants who specialise in
 +management education and development. Based on the belief that \`you
 +cannot manage others unless you are able to manage yourself - to be
 +proactive, rather than allowing yourself to be buffeted and controlled
 +by events and other people.'​ To that might be added that you can't
 +empower other people unless you are empowered yourself.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Manual for action.\
 + ​Martin Jeffs, Action Resources Group, 1982.\
 + ​Sub-titled \`Techniques to enable groups engaged in action for change
 +to increase their effectiveness'​. The first edition, published in 1977,
 +grew out of concern with training for non-violent action. The later
 +edition, revised by Sandy Merritt, contains over 120 techniques.
 +Unfortunately difficult to find.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Organising in voluntary and community groups.\
 + ​National Extension College, 1992.\
 + This title covers two sets of linked materials produced by NEC: a set
 +of distance learning materials by Anne Stamper for people following the
 +RSA advanced diploma in the organisation of community groups, plus a
 +resource pack by Roger Gomm and Minna Ireland.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Organising things: a guide to successful political action.\
 + Sue Ward, Pluto Press, 1984.\
 + How to organise public meetings, marches and demonstrations,​ lobbies,
 +petitions, conferences,​ festivals. Written for campaigners,​ useful on
 +other fronts as well.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Participation - a tenants'​ handbook.\
 + Liz Cairncross, David Clapham, Robina Goodlad. Tenant Participation
 +Advisory Service, 1990.\
 + ​Written for "​tenants'​ groups and other tenants who may be trying to
 +have more say over what happens to their homes and estates."​
 +Distinguishes different levels of participation from listening to
 +control, and deals with some of the methods for involvement which may be
 +used by landlords.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Planning Together: the art of effective teamwork.\
 + ​George Gawlinski and Lois Graessle, Bedford Square Press. 1988.\
 + ​Presents a theoretical model for co-operative planning by any group of
 +people working together as a team, and a step-by-step approach with
 +exercises. Chapters on Taking stock; Developing and sharing a vision;
 +Linking values, policies and strategies; Prioritising aims; Setting
 +objectives; Getting organised and staying organised; Evaluating
 +progress. The the model and exercises can be adapted for participation
 +processes.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Planning under pressure: the strategic choice approach.\
 + John Friend and Allen Hickling, Pergamon Press, 1987\
 + A comprehensive account of the strategic choice approach to planning,
 +problem-solving and decision-making. Powerful, but not for the
 +beginner.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Practical problem solving for managers.\
 + ​Michael Stevens, British Institute of Management, Kogan Page, 1988.\
 + The author defines problems as \`situations in which we experience
 +uncertainty or difficulty in achieving what we want to achieve'​ and
 +offers the equation \`objective + obstacle = PROBLEM.'​ He covers
 +defining problems; generating ideas; solving problems in groups;
 +evaluating solutions; and getting your solution accepted. Includes
 +useful exercises and checklists.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Pressure: the A to Z of campaigning in Britain.\
 + Des Wilson. Heinemann, 1984.\
 + A practical guide to running campaigns by one of the most successful
 +campaigners of the 1970s and 80s. Mainly about national campaigns, but
 +also readable and relevant for local groups. See also Citizen Action.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Rational analysis for a problematic world.\
 + ​Edited by Jonathan Rosenhead, Wiley, 1989.\
 + ​Brings together in relatively accessible form \`super techniques'​ for
 +problem solving like Cognitive Mapping, Soft Systems Methodology and
 +Strategic Choice.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Reinventing government.\
 + David Osborne and Ted Gaebler, Addison Wesley, 1992.\
 + ​Contains many examples of new entrepreneurial approaches to national
 +and local government in the US and is, apparently, required reading
 +among Ministers and senior Civil Servants here.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Resource manual for a living revolution.\
 + ​Virginia Coover, Ellen Deacon, Charles Esser, Christopher Moore. New
 +Society Publishers, 1985.\
 + US classic developed by people involved in non-violent social action in
 +the 1970s \`for people who are concerned or angered by the deterioration
 +of our society and who, because they have some sense that their efforts
 +can have an effect for change, are looking for tools to transform it.'
 +Relevant to campaigning and practical action. Sections cover the
 +theoretical basis for change; working in groups; developing communities
 +of support; personal growth; consciousness raising; training and
 +education; organising for change; exercises and other tools; and
 +practical skills.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Signposts to community development.\
 + ​Marilyn Taylor, Community Development Foundation, 1992.\
 + Makes community development understandable in under 40 pages: a
 +considerable achievement.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Tenant participation in housing management.\
 + ​Institute of Housing and Tenant Participation Advisory Service, 1989.\
 + A guide to good practice based on research undertaken by Glasgow
 +University. Covers the legal requirements of participation in housing;
 +the pattern of participation found in research; the process; the
 +participants;​ outcomes and achievements;​ and standards and performance.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +The innovator'​s handbook.\
 + ​Vincent Nolan, Penguin, 1989.\
 + A volume which brings together books on problem solving, communication
 +and teamwork written by the chairman of consultants Synectics Limited.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +The Tao of Leadership.\
 + John Heider, Wildwood House, 1985.\
 + The author takes the 2500-year-old Chinese classic the Tao Te Ching -
 +source of \`The journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step' -
 +and shows its relevance for leaders (and facilitators) today. A reminder
 +that little is new.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Training and how not to panic.\
 + ​Community Education Training Unit, 1992.\
 + A set of practical guidelines for people involved in training work with
 +community groups, voluntary organisations and local authorities. Covers
 +setting up and planning training events; running the training; exercises
 +and role plays; doubts and difficulties.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Training and how to enjoy it.\
 + ​Community Education Training Unit, 1989.\
 + A collection of training exercises devised by people working in and for
 +community groups and voluntary organisations. The exercises cover groups
 +and meetings; publicity and campaigning;​ equal opportunities;​ finance
 +and funding; planning and problem solving.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Understanding organisations.\
 + ​Charles Handy, Penguin, 1993.\
 + ​Charles Handy is the most accessible of the management gurus. He is
 +always readable, understands the voluntary sector, and puts people
 +first. This book deals with key issues like culture, motivation,
 +leadership, power and so offers insights into what makes organisations
 +participatory or non-participatory. Understanding Voluntary
 +Organisations is also available in Penguin.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Using management games.\
 + Chris Elgood, Gower, 1990.\
 + ​Guidance on developing training games, simulation and exercises.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Voluntary but not amateur.\
 + ​Duncan Forbes, Ruth Hayes and Jacki Reason, London Voluntary Service
 +Council, 1990.\
 + A guide to the law for voluntary organisations and community groups
 +covering responsibilities as an organisation;​ employment; premises;
 +insurance; fundraising;​ accounts; public activities; computers; facing
 +closure.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Working effectively.\
 + ​Warren Feek, Bedford Square Press, 1988.\
 + How to improve an organisation'​s self-awareness,​ motivation,
 +performance (and appeal to funders) by using evaluation techniques.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Yes or no: the guide to better decisions.\
 + ​Spencer Johnson, Harper Collins,​1992.\
 + ​Neatly uses the analogy of a journey to illustrate the main processes
 +of decision-making. See Yes or no in the A-Z section.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Your organisation:​ what is it for?\
 + John Argenti, McGraw Hill, 1993.\
 + ​Argues strongly that all organisations must identify beneficiaries,​ set
 +performance indicators which ensure value is delivered to them, and
 +create governing bodies which represent their interests.
 +
 +##### [Top of reference](main1#​anchor870873)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Useful organisations Information correct at March 1994 - call
 +organisations before writing.\
 +\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +ACRE (Action with Communities in Rural England)\
 + ​Somerford Court,\
 + ​Somerford Road,\
 + ​Cirencester\
 + ​Gloucestershire GL7 1TW\
 + tel: 01285 653477\
 + The national contact point for 38 county-based Rural Community
 +Councils.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Association of Community Technical Aid Centres (ACTAC)\
 + 64 Mount Pleasant,\
 + ​Liverpool L3 5SD\
 + tel: 0151 708 7607\
 + ACTAC provides training, consultancy and project support to local
 +groups as well as representing a national network of professionals who
 +provide local technical support.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Association of Community Trusts and Foundations\
 + High Holborn House,\
 + 52-54 High Holborn,\
 + ​London WC1V 6RL\
 + tel: 0171 831 0033\
 + The national body representing fundraising and grant-making Community
 +Trusts.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Association of Metropolitan Authorities\
 + 35 Great Smith Street,\
 + ​London SW1P 3BJ\
 + tel: 0171 222 8100\
 + ​Represents metropolian local authorities. Published a recent report on
 +local authorities and community development - see Useful Publications.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Civic Trust Regeneration Unit\
 + 17 Carlton House Terrace,\
 + ​London SW1Y 5AW.\
 + tel: 0171 930 0914\
 + The Unit runs a Winning Partnerships programme as well offering
 +consultancy on urban regeneration partnerships .\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Community Development Foundation\
 + 60 Highbury Grove,\
 + ​London N5 2AG\
 + tel: 0171 226 5375\
 + A non-departmental public body which aims to strengthen communities by
 +influencing policy, promoting best practice and supporting community
 +initiatives.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Community Education Development Centre\
 + Lyng Hall,\
 + ​Blackberry Lane,\
 + ​Coventry CV2 3JS\
 + tel: 01203 638660\
 + The national focus for community education in the UK. Their Resources
 +catalogue is a useful mail order source of books and other materials in
 +the field.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Community Education Training Unit\
 + Arden Road,\
 + ​Halifax HX1 3AG\
 + tel: 01422 357394\
 + ​Produces excellent packs on training and facilitation.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Community Land and Workspace Services (CLAWS)\
 + 61 - 71 Collier St,\
 + ​London N1 9DF.\
 + tel: 0171 833 2909\
 + Gives building, landscape design and architectural advice to community
 +groups. See Design Game in the A-Z section.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Community Matters\
 + 8/9 Upper Street,\
 + ​London N1 OPQ.\
 + tel: 0171 226 0189\
 + A membership network of 800 local community organisations,​ providing
 +information,​ advice, and training.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Community Operational Research Unit\
 + ​Northern College,\
 + ​Wentworth Castle,\
 + ​Stainborough,​\
 + ​Barnsley S75 3ET\
 + tel: 01226 285426\
 + ​Assists community groups by applying many of the techniques featured in
 +this guide.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Croner Publications Ltd\
 + ​Croner House,\
 + ​London Road,\
 + ​Kingston upon Thames,\
 + ​Surrey KT2 6SR\
 + tel: 0181 547 3333\
 + ​Publishers of Management of Voluntary Organisations.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Development Trusts Association\
 + 20 Conduit Place,\
 + ​London W2 1HZ.\
 + tel: 0171 706 4951\
 + The national umbrella organisation for community-based development
 +organisations.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Directory of Social Change\
 + ​Radius Works,\
 + Back Lane,\
 + ​London NW3 1HL\
 + tel: 0171 435 8171\
 + ​Independent national charity which runs a wide range of training
 +courses and produces practical handbooks. Also produces a publications
 +catalogue including some other titles quoted in this guide.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Environment Council, The\
 + 21 Elizabeth Street,\
 + ​London SW1W 9RP\
 + tel: 0171824 8411\
 + Runs training sessions and an Environmental Resolve consultancy
 +programme of consensus building.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Groundwork Foundation\
 + 85/87 Cornwall Street,\
 + ​Birmingham B3 3BY\
 + tel: 0121 236 8565\
 + The Foundation funds and support a network of 34 local Groundwork
 +Trusts, which are public, private and voluntary partnerships engaged in
 +environmental work.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Information for Action Ltd\
 + PO Box 277,\
 + ​Brighton BN1 4PF\
 + tel: 01273 724575\
 + A software consultancy which produces the specialist Cata-LIST database
 +designed for community groups.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Lincolnshire Wolds Publications\
 + The Buttermarket,​\
 + ​Caistor LN7 6UE.\
 + tel: 01472 851558\
 + ​Publish Community enterprise from the bottom up.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Local Government Management Board\
 + ​Arndale House,\
 + ​Arndale Centre,\
 + Luton LU1 2TS\
 + tel: 01582 451166\
 + ​Represents and supports local authorities through research, training
 +and publications.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +London Voluntary Service Council\
 + 68 Chalton Street,\
 + ​London NW1 1JR\
 + tel: 0171 388 0241\
 + ​Publishes a number of the books on management of voluntary
 +organisations mentioned in this guide.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +National Association of Councils for Voluntary Service\
 + 177 Arundel Court,\
 + ​Sheffield S1 2NU.\
 + tel: 01742 786636\
 + Will provide details of your local Council for Voluntary Service, which
 +will be a contact point for voluntary organisations in your area.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +National Council for Voluntary Organisations (NCVO)\
 + 8 Regents Wharf,\
 + All Saints Street,\
 + ​London N1 9LR\
 + tel: 0171 713 6161\
 + The national body for the voluntary sector.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +National Extension College\
 + 18 Brooklands Avenue,\
 + ​Cambridge CB2 2HN\
 + tel: 01223 316644\
 + ​Publications and courses.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Neighbourhood Initiatives Foundation\
 + The Poplars,\
 + ​Lightmoor,​\
 + ​Telford TF3 3QN\
 + tel: 01952 590777\
 + See Planning for Real in the A-Z section. NIF sells a range of packs
 +and also offers consultancy support on participation.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Newcastle Architecture Workshop Ltd\
 + ​Blackfriars,​\
 + Monk Street,\
 + ​Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4XN.\
 + tel: 0191 261 7349\
 + The workshop is an educational charity providing an environmental
 +education and community technical aid and design service. See Awareness
 +through to action under Useful Publications.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Partnership\
 + 13 Pelham Square,\
 + ​Brighton BN1 4ET\
 + 01273 677377\
 +\
 + ​Offers consultancy and training on participation and partnership
 +organisations;​ where you can contact the author of this guide. David
 +Wilcox <​dwilcox@pavilion.co.uk>​\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Planning Aid for London\
 + ​Calvert House,\
 + 5 Calvert Avenue,\
 + ​London E2 7JP.\
 + tel: 0171 613 4435.\
 + ​Provides advice on town planning issues and encourages people to become
 +involved in shaping their environment. Can provide addresses of similar
 +organisations elsewhere.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Priority Focus Team\
 + Town Hall,\
 + ​Surrey Street,\
 + ​Sheffield S1 2HH\
 + tel: 01742 734024\
 + See Priority Search in the A-Z section.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Radical Improvements for Peripheral Estates (RIPE)\
 + C/o Middlesbrough Borough Council,\
 + First floor,\
 + ​Corporation House,\
 + ​Albert Road,\
 + ​Middlesbrough TS1 2RU.\
 + tel: 01642 245432\
 + ​Published Limbering up, a study of community empowerment on peripheral
 +housing estates.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Royal Institute of British Architects\
 + ​Community Architecture Resource Centre,\
 + 66 Portland Place,\
 + ​London W1N 4AD\
 + tel: 0171 580 5533.\
 + The resource centre organises training for community groups developing
 +building and environmental projects, and administers a fund for groups
 +undertaking feasibility studies. Also supplies information on architects
 +who will help groups.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +School for Advanced Urban Studies\
 + ​Rodney Lodge,\
 + ​Grange Road,\
 + ​Bristol BS8 4EA\
 + tel: 01272 741117\
 + ​Research,​ consultancy,​ training and publications,​ including work on
 +issues of participation and partnership.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Shell Better Britain Campaign\
 + Red House,\
 + Hill Lane,\
 + ​Birmingham B43 5BR\
 + tel: 0121 358 0744\
 + A partnership of 15 organisations with Shell UK, providing information,​
 +grants and advice to local groups. The free Guide to a Better Britain is
 +an excellent source of ideas and help about community-based
 +environmental projects.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Standing Conference for Community Development\
 + 356 Glossop Road,\
 + ​Sheffield S10 2HW\
 + tel: 01742 701718\
 + A \`network of networks'​ for activists, paid workers and organisations
 +in the field. Call for details and local contacts.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Stradspan Limited\
 + ​Sheffield Science Park,\
 + ​Arundel Street,\
 + ​Sheffield S1 2NS\
 + tel: 01742 724140\
 + ​Supplies software for the Strategic Choice decision-making technique.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Tenant Participation Advisory Service\
 + 48 The Crescent,\
 + ​Salford M5 4NY\
 + tel: 0161 745 7903\
 + The national organisation promoting and supporting tenant
 +participation.\
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 +Volunteer Centre UK\
 + 29 Lower Kings Road,\
 + ​Berkhamsted,​\
 + Herts HP4 2AB\
 + tel: 01442 873311\
 + Runs courses for people working with volunteers, provides help and
 +advice to groups, and publishes useful materials.
 +
 +##### [Top of reference](main1#​anchor870873)
 +
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
partnerships/guide/main1.txt · Last modified: 2017/06/12 10:20 (external edit)