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partnerships:part:arn [2017/06/12 10:20] (current)
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 +Sherry Arnstein
 +Sherry Arnstein, writing in 1969 about citizen involvement in planning
 +processes in the United States, described a ladder of participation.
 +([see below](arn.htm#​sherry) for more on Sherry Arnstein)
 +(Arnstein, Sherry R. "A Ladder of Citizen Participation,"​ Journal of the
 +[American Planning Association](http://​,​ Vol. 35, No.
 +4, July 1969, pp. 216-224. [Available online
 +[Blog item
 +**1** Manipulation and **2** Therapy. Both are non participative. The
 +aim is to cure or educate the participants. The proposed plan is best
 +and the job of participation is to achieve public support by public
 +**3** Informing. A most important first step to legitimate
 +participation. But too frequently the emphasis is on a one way flow of
 +information. No channel for feedback.
 +**4** Consultation. Again a legitimate step attitude surveys,
 +neighbourhood meetings and public enquiries. But Arnstein still feels
 +this is just a window dressing ritual.
 +**5** Placation. For example, co-option of hand-picked '​worthies'​ onto
 +committees. It allows citizens to advise or plan ad infinitum but
 +retains for power holders the right to judge the legitimacy or
 +feasibility of the advice.
 +**6** Partnership. Power is in fact redistributed through negotiation
 +between citizens and power holders. Planning and decision-making
 +responsibilities are shared e.g. through joint committees.
 +**7** Delegated power. Citizens holding a clear majority of seats on
 +committees with delegated powers to make decisions. Public now has the
 +power to assure accountability of the programme to them.
 +**8** Citizen Control. Have-nots handle the entire job of planning,
 +policy making and managing a programme e.g. neighbourhood corporation
 +with no intermediaries between it and the source of funds. <span
 +id="​sherry"></​span>​Sadly Sherry Arnistein died in January 1997
 +Sherry R. Arnstein, former Executive Director of the American
 +Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, died at home in
 +Washington D.C. on January 19, 1997 after losing her fight with breast
 +She served the organization and it's osteopathic medical schools for
 +over a decade taking the Maryland based national association through the
 +many changes that affected medical education and healthcare during that
 +After moving to Washington D.C. from California she served as the
 +Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary of the Department of
 +Health, Education and Welfare, where she planned a federal strategy to
 +desegregate the nation'​s hospitals. She led an integrated team to the
 +South in 1963 to test compliance techniques and later trained other team
 +Her landmark analysis, published as a "​Ladder of Citizen Participation",​
 +has been reprinted more that 80 times and has been translated into
 +several foreign languages.
 +She served several years with Arthur D. Little Inc. as a consulting
 +public policy analyst and project manager and shifted to the emerging
 +field of technology assessment, especially as it applied to health care.
 +She was the senior author of "​Perspectives on Technology Assessment"​
 +(1975). [Back to Partnerships at Partnerships Online](index.htm)
 +Prepared by David Wilcox
 +November 16 1998
partnerships/part/arn.txt ยท Last modified: 2017/06/12 10:20 (external edit)